Antioxidant and apoptotic effects of Callistemon lanceolatus leaves and their compounds against human cancer cells.Biomed Pharmacother 2018; 106:1195-1209BP
Callistemon lanceolatus (Myrtaceae) has been utilized in folk medicine and its pharmacological properties are widely studied. Phytochemicals are effectively recognized as bases of pharmacologically potent drugs for the development of anticancer therapeutics. The free radical scavenging potential of numerous extracts of C. lanceolatus leaves, Hexane leaf extract (HLE), Chloroform leaf extract (CLE), Ethyl acetate leaf extract (ELE), Methanol leaf extract (MLE), and Aqueous leaf extract (ALE)) were determined by Biochemical assay. We evaluated the anticancer activity of C. lanceolatus leaves extracts against different human cancer cell lines viz liver cancer cells (HepG2), breast cancer cells (MCF7), and normal human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cell line. The ELE and MLE extracts of C. lanceolatus leaves showed potential antiproliferative effects on HepG2 cells. On the basis of free radical scavenging potential and cytotoxicity studies, ELE and MLE extracts of C. lanceolatus leaves are further evaluated in detail for numerous biological activities. ELE and MLE extracts reduced the cell growth, ROS generation, lowering the potential of cell migration and inhibits the metastatic activity in HepG2 cell lines. ELE and MLE extracts treated HepG2 cells showed down-regulation of STAT3 and up-regulation of p53 and inhibition of cdk2 and cyclin A activity. Phytochemicals analysis have shown that the ELE and MLE possess some anticancer compounds like 4-Fluoro-2-trifluoromethylbenzoic acid, neopentyl ester; fumaric acid, di(pent-4-en-2-yl) ester; 2,3-Dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one and 2-Furancarboxaldehyde,5-(hydroxymethyl). Molecular docking results demonstrate that interactions of compounds present in ELE and MLE extracts with the SH2 domain of STAT3, might be responsible for their inhibitory effects. We have further concluded that the ELE and MLE extracts of C. lanceolatus arrests the cells at S and G2/M phase and subsequently induced cell death by regulating the DNA damage in HepG2 cells.