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Efficient cephalexin degradation using active chlorine produced on ruthenium and iridium oxide anodes: Role of bath composition, analysis of degradation pathways and degradation extent.
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jan 15; 648:377-387.ST

Abstract

The elimination of cephalexin (CPX) using electro-generated Cl2-active on Ti/RuO2-IrO2 anode was assessed in different effluents: deionized water (DW), municipal wastewater (MWW) and urine. Single Ti/RuO2 and Ti/IrO2 catalysts were prepared to compare their morphologies and electrochemical behavior against the binary DSA. XRD and profile refinement suggest that Ti/RuO2-IrO2 forms a solid solution, where RuO2 and IrO2 growths are oriented by the TiO2 substrate through substitution of Ir by Ru atoms within its rutile-type structure. SEM reveals mud-cracked structures with flat areas for all catalysts, while EDS analysis indicates atomic ratios in the range of the oxide stoichiometries in the nominal concentrations used during synthesis. A considerably higher CPX degradation is achieved in the presence of NaCl than in Na2SO4 or Na3PO4 media due to the active chlorine generation. A faster CPX degradation is reached when the current density is increased or the pH value is lowered. This last behavior may be ascribed to an acid-catalyzed reaction between HClO and CPX. Degradation rates of 22.5, 3.96, and 0.576 μmol L-1 min-1 were observed for DW, MWW and urine, respectively. The lower efficiency measured in these last two effluents was related to the presence of organic matter and urea in the matrix. A degradation pathway is proposed based on HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analysis, indicating the fast formation (5 min) of CPX-(S)-sulfoxide and CPX-(R)-sulfoxide, generated due the Cl2-active attack at the CPX thioether. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity elimination of the treated solution is reached once CPX, and the initial by-products are considerably eliminated. Finally, even if only 16% of initial TOC is removed, BOD5 tests prove the ability of electro-generated Cl2-active to transform the antibiotic into biodegradable compounds. A similar strategy can be used for the abatement of other recalcitrant compounds contained in real water matrices such as urine and municipal wastewaters.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis (GIRAB), Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis (GIRAB), Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia; Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. IPN No. 2580, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07340 Ciudad de México, Mexico. Electronic address: ricardo.palma@udea.edu.co.Centro Mexicano para la Producción más Limpia, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Avenida Acueducto s/n, Col. La Laguna Ticomán, 07340 Ciudad de México, Mexico.Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas-Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Av. IPN No. 2580, Gustavo A. Madero, C.P. 07340 Ciudad de México, Mexico.Grupo CATALAD, Instituto de Química, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia.Grupo de Investigación en Remediación Ambiental y Biocatálisis (GIRAB), Instituto de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín, Colombia. Electronic address: ricardo.torres@udea.edu.co.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30121037

Citation

Perea, Lic A., et al. "Efficient Cephalexin Degradation Using Active Chlorine Produced On Ruthenium and Iridium Oxide Anodes: Role of Bath Composition, Analysis of Degradation Pathways and Degradation Extent." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 648, 2019, pp. 377-387.
Perea LA, Palma-Goyes RE, Vazquez-Arenas J, et al. Efficient cephalexin degradation using active chlorine produced on ruthenium and iridium oxide anodes: Role of bath composition, analysis of degradation pathways and degradation extent. Sci Total Environ. 2019;648:377-387.
Perea, L. A., Palma-Goyes, R. E., Vazquez-Arenas, J., Romero-Ibarra, I., Ostos, C., & Torres-Palma, R. A. (2019). Efficient cephalexin degradation using active chlorine produced on ruthenium and iridium oxide anodes: Role of bath composition, analysis of degradation pathways and degradation extent. The Science of the Total Environment, 648, 377-387. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.148
Perea LA, et al. Efficient Cephalexin Degradation Using Active Chlorine Produced On Ruthenium and Iridium Oxide Anodes: Role of Bath Composition, Analysis of Degradation Pathways and Degradation Extent. Sci Total Environ. 2019 Jan 15;648:377-387. PubMed PMID: 30121037.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Efficient cephalexin degradation using active chlorine produced on ruthenium and iridium oxide anodes: Role of bath composition, analysis of degradation pathways and degradation extent. AU - Perea,Lic A, AU - Palma-Goyes,Ricardo E, AU - Vazquez-Arenas,Jorge, AU - Romero-Ibarra,Issis, AU - Ostos,Carlos, AU - Torres-Palma,Ricardo A, Y1 - 2018/08/11/ PY - 2018/05/03/received PY - 2018/08/01/revised PY - 2018/08/10/accepted PY - 2018/8/19/pubmed PY - 2018/11/28/medline PY - 2018/8/19/entrez KW - Active chlorine KW - Electrochemical oxidation KW - RuO(2)-IrO(2) KW - Urine effluent KW - Wastewater treatment KW - β-Lactam SP - 377 EP - 387 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci. Total Environ. VL - 648 N2 - The elimination of cephalexin (CPX) using electro-generated Cl2-active on Ti/RuO2-IrO2 anode was assessed in different effluents: deionized water (DW), municipal wastewater (MWW) and urine. Single Ti/RuO2 and Ti/IrO2 catalysts were prepared to compare their morphologies and electrochemical behavior against the binary DSA. XRD and profile refinement suggest that Ti/RuO2-IrO2 forms a solid solution, where RuO2 and IrO2 growths are oriented by the TiO2 substrate through substitution of Ir by Ru atoms within its rutile-type structure. SEM reveals mud-cracked structures with flat areas for all catalysts, while EDS analysis indicates atomic ratios in the range of the oxide stoichiometries in the nominal concentrations used during synthesis. A considerably higher CPX degradation is achieved in the presence of NaCl than in Na2SO4 or Na3PO4 media due to the active chlorine generation. A faster CPX degradation is reached when the current density is increased or the pH value is lowered. This last behavior may be ascribed to an acid-catalyzed reaction between HClO and CPX. Degradation rates of 22.5, 3.96, and 0.576 μmol L-1 min-1 were observed for DW, MWW and urine, respectively. The lower efficiency measured in these last two effluents was related to the presence of organic matter and urea in the matrix. A degradation pathway is proposed based on HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS analysis, indicating the fast formation (5 min) of CPX-(S)-sulfoxide and CPX-(R)-sulfoxide, generated due the Cl2-active attack at the CPX thioether. Furthermore, antimicrobial activity elimination of the treated solution is reached once CPX, and the initial by-products are considerably eliminated. Finally, even if only 16% of initial TOC is removed, BOD5 tests prove the ability of electro-generated Cl2-active to transform the antibiotic into biodegradable compounds. A similar strategy can be used for the abatement of other recalcitrant compounds contained in real water matrices such as urine and municipal wastewaters. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30121037/Efficient_cephalexin_degradation_using_active_chlorine_produced_on_ruthenium_and_iridium_oxide_anodes:_Role_of_bath_composition_analysis_of_degradation_pathways_and_degradation_extent_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(18)33112-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -