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Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations.
J Prosthodont. 2019 Feb; 28(2):e587-e594.JP

Abstract

PURPOSE

To determine and compare the microstructure, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture strength, and microhardness of four types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials for monolithic dental restorations.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

A lithium disilicate (LD; IPS e.max CAD), a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS; VITA Suprinity), a hybrid high-performance polymer (HPP) composite resin (GC Cerasmart), and a hybrid polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material (VITA Enamic) were used to manufacture monolithic ceramic posterior crowns (n = 10) that were adhesively cemented on resin-based composite dies and loaded until fracture. In addition, 40 rectangular bars (n = 10) were milled and polished for three-point flexural strength testing. Microhardness (Vickers indentation), as well as quantitative (energy dispersive spectroscopy) and qualitative (scanning electron microscopy) structural analysis were conducted on fracture surfaces. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc test (p = 0.05).

RESULTS

Mechanical testing results showed that the material type has a significant effect on the fracture strength (p < 0.0001) of the monolithic crowns with ZLS and LD presenting significantly higher fracture strength than the PICN and HPP hybrid materials. LD showed the highest flexural strength (p < 0.0001) followed by ZLS, HPP, and PICN, respectively. The lowest flexural modulus and hardness were presented by HPP whereas ZLS had the highest flexural modulus and hardness. The LD presented the highest modulus of resilience and the PICN the lowest.

CONCLUSIONS

All CAD/CAM crown materials exhibited high values of fracture and flexural resistance, making them suitable materials for posterior full-crown restorations. Glass-ceramics suffered more from catastrophic and nonreparable fracture patterns, whereas minimal chipping and type II fracture patterns were more common in hybrid materials. The combination of more flexibility, less stiffness, and increased softness with satisfactory flexural and fracture strength values observed in PICN and HPP makes these two hybrid materials suitable choices for chairside monolithic crown fabrication.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Prosthodontics, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.Oral Rehabilitation & Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.Department of Prosthodontics, Fluminense Federal University, Niterói, Brazil.Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.Oral Rehabilitation & Dental Biomaterials and Bioengineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30121945

Citation

Furtado de Mendonca, Arthur, et al. "Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations." Journal of Prosthodontics : Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists, vol. 28, no. 2, 2019, pp. e587-e594.
Furtado de Mendonca A, Shahmoradi M, Gouvêa CVD, et al. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations. J Prosthodont. 2019;28(2):e587-e594.
Furtado de Mendonca, A., Shahmoradi, M., Gouvêa, C. V. D., De Souza, G. M., & Ellakwa, A. (2019). Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations. Journal of Prosthodontics : Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists, 28(2), e587-e594. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopr.12964
Furtado de Mendonca A, et al. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations. J Prosthodont. 2019;28(2):e587-e594. PubMed PMID: 30121945.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of CAD/CAM Materials for Monolithic Dental Restorations. AU - Furtado de Mendonca,Arthur, AU - Shahmoradi,Mahdi, AU - Gouvêa,Cresus Vinicius Depes de, AU - De Souza,Grace M, AU - Ellakwa,Ayman, Y1 - 2018/08/18/ PY - 2018/06/21/accepted PY - 2018/8/20/pubmed PY - 2019/7/25/medline PY - 2018/8/20/entrez KW - Ceramics KW - dental crown KW - mechanical properties KW - polymers SP - e587 EP - e594 JF - Journal of prosthodontics : official journal of the American College of Prosthodontists JO - J Prosthodont VL - 28 IS - 2 N2 - PURPOSE: To determine and compare the microstructure, flexural strength, flexural modulus, fracture strength, and microhardness of four types of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials for monolithic dental restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A lithium disilicate (LD; IPS e.max CAD), a zirconia-reinforced lithium silicate (ZLS; VITA Suprinity), a hybrid high-performance polymer (HPP) composite resin (GC Cerasmart), and a hybrid polymer-infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) material (VITA Enamic) were used to manufacture monolithic ceramic posterior crowns (n = 10) that were adhesively cemented on resin-based composite dies and loaded until fracture. In addition, 40 rectangular bars (n = 10) were milled and polished for three-point flexural strength testing. Microhardness (Vickers indentation), as well as quantitative (energy dispersive spectroscopy) and qualitative (scanning electron microscopy) structural analysis were conducted on fracture surfaces. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post-hoc test (p = 0.05). RESULTS: Mechanical testing results showed that the material type has a significant effect on the fracture strength (p < 0.0001) of the monolithic crowns with ZLS and LD presenting significantly higher fracture strength than the PICN and HPP hybrid materials. LD showed the highest flexural strength (p < 0.0001) followed by ZLS, HPP, and PICN, respectively. The lowest flexural modulus and hardness were presented by HPP whereas ZLS had the highest flexural modulus and hardness. The LD presented the highest modulus of resilience and the PICN the lowest. CONCLUSIONS: All CAD/CAM crown materials exhibited high values of fracture and flexural resistance, making them suitable materials for posterior full-crown restorations. Glass-ceramics suffered more from catastrophic and nonreparable fracture patterns, whereas minimal chipping and type II fracture patterns were more common in hybrid materials. The combination of more flexibility, less stiffness, and increased softness with satisfactory flexural and fracture strength values observed in PICN and HPP makes these two hybrid materials suitable choices for chairside monolithic crown fabrication. SN - 1532-849X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30121945/Microstructural_and_Mechanical_Characterization_of_CAD/CAM_Materials_for_Monolithic_Dental_Restorations_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -