Uptake and Intraradical Immobilization of Cadmium by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi as Revealed by a Stable Isotope Tracer and Synchrotron Radiation μX-Ray Fluorescence Analysis.Microbes Environ. 2018 Sep 29; 33(3):257-263.ME
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi can improve plant tolerance to heavy metal contamination. This detoxification ability may largely depend on how AM fungi influence the uptake and distribution of metals in host plants. Two experiments were performed in order to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying cadmium (Cd) tolerance in mycorrhizal plants. Stable isotope Cd106 and compartmented pots were adopted to quantify the contribution of the AM fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, to the uptake of Cd by Lotus japonicus. Moreover, synchrotron radiation μX-ray fluorescence (SR-μXRF) was applied to localize Cd in the mycorrhizal roots at the sub-cellular level. The results obtained indicated that mycorrhizal colonization markedly enhanced Cd immobilization in plant roots. Less Cd was partitioned to plant shoots when only hyphae had access to Cd in the hyphal compartment than when roots also had direct access to the Cd pool. SR-μXRF imaging indicated that Cd absorbed by extraradical hyphae was translocated into intraradical fungal structures, in which arbuscules accumulated large amounts of Cd; however, plant cells without fungal structures and plant cell walls contained negligible amounts of Cd. The present results provide direct evidence for the intraradical immobilization of Cd absorbed by AM fungi, which may largely contribute to the enhanced tolerance of plants to Cd. Therefore, AM fungi may play a role in the phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soil.