δ-Opioid Receptor Activation Attenuates the Oligomer Formation Induced by Hypoxia and/or α-Synuclein Overexpression/Mutation Through Dual Signaling Pathways.Mol Neurobiol. 2019 May; 56(5):3463-3475.MN
We have recently demonstrated that δ-opioid receptor (DOR) activation attenuates α-synuclein expression/aggregation induced by MPP(+) and/or severe hypoxia. Since α-synuclein plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, DOR activation may trigger an antiparkinson pathway(s) against α-synuclein-induced injury. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown yet. In HEK293T and PC12 cells, we investigated the effects of DOR activation on the oligomer formation induced by α-synuclein overexpression and mutation in normoxic and hypoxic conditions and explored the potential signaling pathways for DOR protection. We found that (1) increased expression of both wild-type and A53T-mutant α-synuclein led to the formation of α-synuclein oligomers and cytotoxic injury; (2) DOR activation largely attenuated the formation of toxic α-synuclein oligomers induced by α-synuclein overexpression/mutation and/or hypoxia; (3) DOR activation attenuated α-synuclein-induced cytotoxicity through TORC1/SIK1/CREB, but not the phospho-CREB pathway, while DOR activation reduced hypoxic cell injury through the phospho-CREB mechanism; and (4) the interaction of α-synuclein and the DJ-1 was involved in the mechanisms for DOR-mediated protection against α-synuclein oligomer formation. Our findings suggest that DOR attenuates the formation of toxic α-synuclein oligomers through the phos-CREB pathway under hypoxic conditions, and through TORC1/SIK1/CREB pathways in the conditions of α-synuclein overexpression and mutation. The DJ-1 gene was involved in the DOR protection against parkinsonian injury.