Important Approaches to Enhance Reverse Osmosis (RO) Thin Film Composite (TFC) Membranes Performance.Membranes (Basel) 2018; 8(3)M
Thin film composite (TFC) membrane, which consists of polyamide (PA) active film rests on porous support layer, has been the major type of reverse osmosis (RO) membrane since its development by Cadotte in the 1970s, and has been remarkably used to produce clean water for human consumption and domestic utilization. In the past 30 years, different approaches have been exploited to produce the TFC membrane with high water flux, excellent salt rejection, and better chlorine/fouling resistance. In this brief review, we classify the techniques that have been utilized to improve the RO-TFC membrane properties into four categories: (1) Using alternative monomers to prepare the active layer; (2) modification of membrane surface; (3) optimization of polymerization reactions; and (4) incorporation of nanoparticles (NPs) into the membrane PA layer. This review can provide insights to guide future research and further propel the RO TFN membrane.