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Ethnic disparities of beverage consumption in infants and children 0-5 years of age; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014.
Nutr J. 2018 08 22; 17(1):78.NJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Dietary patterns, including beverage consumption, that are developed during a child's first few years of life have been shown to impact dietary choices made later in life. Authoritative sources provide beverage recommendations for infants and children; however, it is unclear if these guidelines are followed and what, if any, the differences are among races/ethnicities. The objective of this study was to examine beverage consumption to recommendations among children 0-5 months, 6-11 months, 12-23 months, 2-3 years, and 4-5 years. Additionally, examine how these beverage patterns associate with nutrient intake and to determine if differences exist in beverage consumption among race/ethnic groups (Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Asian) in children aged 0-23 months, 2-3 years, and 4-5 years.

METHODS

Data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for children 0-5 years were analyzed (n = 2445). Beverages were classified as follows; milk, 100% juice, diet beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), and water.

RESULTS

Our results show that regardless of race/ethnicity, dietary recommendation were not always followed. Prior to 6 months, 10% of infants consumed any amount of 100% juice; from 6 to 11 months, 17% of young children were drinking any amount of milk. SSB consumption rapidly increased with age, whereas intake of milk and 100% juice declined after 2 to 3 years of age. Non-Hispanic Black young children consumed the most 100% juice from 2 to 3 years and up, exceeding recommended amounts, and throughout all age groups they consumed the least milk and most SSBs. The decreased intake of nutrient-rich beverages with age was associated with lower intakes of under-consumed nutrients of public health concern. By 4-5 years, 32.7% and 93.8% of children were consuming <EAR for calcium and vitamin D, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

Dietary recommendations for both the introduction of beverages and amounts consumed were not consistently followed for American infants and children 0-5 years. Race/ethnic disparities exist in beverage consumption with Non-Hispanic Black children consuming the least amount of milk and most SSBs. Improving beverage consumption patterns could help improve overall diet quality which directly contributes to overall childhood health.

Authors+Show Affiliations

National Dairy Council, 10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900, Rosemont, IL, 60018-5616, USA. eliekedemmer@gmail.com.National Dairy Council, 10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900, Rosemont, IL, 60018-5616, USA.National Dairy Council, 10255 West Higgins Road, Suite 900, Rosemont, IL, 60018-5616, USA.Nutrition Impact, LLC, Battle Creek, MI, 49014, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30134909

Citation

Demmer, Elieke, et al. "Ethnic Disparities of Beverage Consumption in Infants and Children 0-5 Years of Age; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014." Nutrition Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, 2018, p. 78.
Demmer E, Cifelli CJ, Houchins JA, et al. Ethnic disparities of beverage consumption in infants and children 0-5 years of age; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014. Nutr J. 2018;17(1):78.
Demmer, E., Cifelli, C. J., Houchins, J. A., & Fulgoni, V. L. (2018). Ethnic disparities of beverage consumption in infants and children 0-5 years of age; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014. Nutrition Journal, 17(1), 78. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-018-0388-0
Demmer E, et al. Ethnic Disparities of Beverage Consumption in Infants and Children 0-5 Years of Age; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014. Nutr J. 2018 08 22;17(1):78. PubMed PMID: 30134909.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ethnic disparities of beverage consumption in infants and children 0-5 years of age; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2014. AU - Demmer,Elieke, AU - Cifelli,Christopher J, AU - Houchins,Jenny A, AU - Fulgoni,Victor L,3rd Y1 - 2018/08/22/ PY - 2017/11/17/received PY - 2018/08/09/accepted PY - 2018/8/24/entrez PY - 2018/8/24/pubmed PY - 2019/6/6/medline KW - 100% juice KW - Beverage KW - Children KW - Ethnic disparities KW - Infants KW - Milk KW - Nutrient intake KW - Recommendations KW - Sugar sweetened beverage SP - 78 EP - 78 JF - Nutrition journal JO - Nutr J VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns, including beverage consumption, that are developed during a child's first few years of life have been shown to impact dietary choices made later in life. Authoritative sources provide beverage recommendations for infants and children; however, it is unclear if these guidelines are followed and what, if any, the differences are among races/ethnicities. The objective of this study was to examine beverage consumption to recommendations among children 0-5 months, 6-11 months, 12-23 months, 2-3 years, and 4-5 years. Additionally, examine how these beverage patterns associate with nutrient intake and to determine if differences exist in beverage consumption among race/ethnic groups (Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, Hispanic, and Asian) in children aged 0-23 months, 2-3 years, and 4-5 years. METHODS: Data from the 2011-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for children 0-5 years were analyzed (n = 2445). Beverages were classified as follows; milk, 100% juice, diet beverages, sugar sweetened beverages (SSB), and water. RESULTS: Our results show that regardless of race/ethnicity, dietary recommendation were not always followed. Prior to 6 months, 10% of infants consumed any amount of 100% juice; from 6 to 11 months, 17% of young children were drinking any amount of milk. SSB consumption rapidly increased with age, whereas intake of milk and 100% juice declined after 2 to 3 years of age. Non-Hispanic Black young children consumed the most 100% juice from 2 to 3 years and up, exceeding recommended amounts, and throughout all age groups they consumed the least milk and most SSBs. The decreased intake of nutrient-rich beverages with age was associated with lower intakes of under-consumed nutrients of public health concern. By 4-5 years, 32.7% and 93.8% of children were consuming <EAR for calcium and vitamin D, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary recommendations for both the introduction of beverages and amounts consumed were not consistently followed for American infants and children 0-5 years. Race/ethnic disparities exist in beverage consumption with Non-Hispanic Black children consuming the least amount of milk and most SSBs. Improving beverage consumption patterns could help improve overall diet quality which directly contributes to overall childhood health. SN - 1475-2891 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30134909/Ethnic_disparities_of_beverage_consumption_in_infants_and_children_0_5_years_of_age L2 - https://nutritionj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12937-018-0388-0 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -