Low positive titer of anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody is not associated with a poor long-term outcome of interstitial lung disease in patients with dermatomyositis.Respir Investig 2018; 56(6):464-472RI
Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody (anti-MDA5-Ab) is associated with fatal rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease (RP-ILD) in patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We attempted to clarify whether anti-MDA5-Ab is associated with long-term outcomes in patients with DM-ILD.
Thirty-six patients with DM-ILD were retrospectively analyzed for their serum anti-MDA5-Ab by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed the association between clinical parameters, including the serum levels of anti-MDA5-Ab and ferritin.
Fourteen patients (39%) were positive for anti-MDA5-Ab. The serum levels of anti-MDA5-Ab and ferritin in 7 patients with acute death were higher than those in the surviving patients. An "unclassifiable pattern" on chest computed tomography and the development of RP-ILD were also prognostic markers. The serum levels of anti-MDA5-Ab and ferritin (cut-off levels, 100 IU/mL and 899 ng/mL, respectively) were markers predictive of acute death, showing good sensitivity (86% and 83%) and specificity (97% and 100%). All 7 patients with acute death developed RP-ILD and were positive for anti-MDA5-Ab, including 6 patients with a high titer (≥100 IU/mL), whereas only 2 patients (29%) developed RP-ILD among the 7 survivors with a low titer of anti-MDA5-Ab (< 100 IU/mL). In contrast, a low positive titer of anti-MDA5-Ab was not associated with changes in pulmonary function for 2 years.
Although a high serum titer of anti-MDA5-Ab (≥100 IU/mL) is associated with acute death via the development of RP-ILD, outcomes in the chronic phase for patients with a low titer of anti-MDA5-Ab (< 100 IU/mL) were similar to those of patients without anti-MDA5-Ab.