Pitfalls in transhepatic portography.Radiology. 1977 Aug; 124(2):325-9.R
Difficulties commonly encountered in transhepatic catheterization of the portal vein and interpretation of portograms are discussed. A long-sleeved trocar is recommended. Curved guide wires and deflector assemblies may assist in superselective catheterization of the tributaries of the portal vein. The judicious use of embolic material (small volumes, slowly injected) should guarantee the success and safety of this technique. Transhepatic obliteration of the gastroesophageal veins is a relatively simple and usually successful form of palliative treatment for actively bleeding and stable gastroesophageal varices. Thoroughness of the embolization procedure and of interruption of blood flow in the gastroesophageal veins is necessary to prevent early recurrence of bleeding.