Association between serum Na-Cl level and renal function decline in chronic kidney disease: results from the chronic kidney disease Japan cohort (CKD-JAC) study.Clin Exp Nephrol. 2019 Feb; 23(2):215-222.CE
Metabolic acidosis, which reduces serum bicarbonate levels, contributes to the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The difference between sodium and chloride (Na-Cl) may theoretically predict serum bicarbonate levels. This study aimed to evaluate serum Na-Cl level as a risk factor for renal function decline among patients who participated in the chronic kidney disease Japan cohort (CKD-JAC) study.
The association between low Na-Cl concentration (< 34 mmol/L) and composite renal function decline events (any initiation of renal replacement therapy or 50% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate) was evaluated among 2143 patients with CKD stage G3a-4. Using Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated after adjusting for the following covariates: age, sex, diabetes mellitus, diabetic nephropathy, cardiovascular disease, anemia, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists, loop diuretics, cigarette smoking, body mass index, serum albumin, systolic blood pressure, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and CKD stage.
Composite renal function decline events were observed in 405 patients (18.9%) over the 4-year follow-up period. Low serum Na-Cl level (< 34 mmol/L) was independently associated with a greater risk for composite renal function decline events (HR 1.384; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.116-1.717). Subgroup analyses identified that the association between low Na-Cl level and composite renal function decline events was stronger among patients with CKD stage G4 and those with anemia.
Our investigation suggests that Na-Cl is an independent predictor of CKD progression, especially among patients with CKD stage G4 and those with anemia.