Macular carotenoids in lipid food matrices: DOE-based high energy extraction of egg yolk xanthophylls and quantification through a validated APCI(+) LC-MS/MS method.J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2018 Oct 01; 1096:160-171.JC
Lutein and zeaxanthin exhibit significant biological activities therefore their dietary intake through carotenoid-rich foods and supplements is strongly recommended as preventive approach. Hence their extraction from natural substrates targets to their commercial exploitation as nutraceuticals and ocular pharmaceuticals. Since carotenoids' bioavailability is higher in fat-containing substrates, egg yolk is considered an ideal food matrix. DOE-based optimization of novel high energy extraction practices achieves efficient recovery of xanthophylls from lipid sources. In this research, 23 full factorial and Box-Behnken designs (BBD) were applied for optimizing ultrasound- (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) variables (i.e. extraction solvent, temperature, time, US or MW power and solvent/material ratio). LC-MS/MS results pointed out the precedence of UAE in lutein and zeaxanthin extraction, where higher yields were obtained with 1:1 n-hexane-acetone as solvent mixture at 19 min, 600 W and 35 mL g-1. UAE carotenoid content was higher than MAE due to the different mechanisms laying behind the two processes and due to more complete granule rupture caused by higher US power. Evaluating the current results, DOE-based UAE analytical methodology stands out as an auspicious and sustainable alternative for commercial-based extraction of lipidic bioactive compounds for food and drug industrial applications.