Pristine graphene induces cardiovascular defects in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryogenesis.Environ Pollut. 2018 Dec; 243(Pt A):246-254.EP
The multiple effect of pristine graphene (pG) toxicity on cardiovascular developmental defects was assessed using zebrafish as a model. Recently, the nanotoxicity is emerging as a critical issue, and it is more significant in embryogenesis. Especially, graphene and its derivatives have attracted a lot of interest in biomedical applications. However, very little is known about the toxic effects of pG which has been widely used carbon nanomaterial according to concentration and its effects on biological and cardiovascular development. In the present study, we examined the development of zebrafish embryos by exposing to pG (5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 μg/L) under different developmental toxicity end-points such as cardiotoxicity, cardiovascular defect, retardation of cardiac looping, apoptosis and globin expression analysis. For this, the developmental cardiotoxicity of pG at different concentrations and the specific cardiovascular defects thereof were elucidated for the first time. As a result, the exposure to pG was found to be a potential risk factor to cardiovascular system of zebrafish embryos. However, a further study on the variations of physical, molecular properties and mechanisms of nanotoxicity which vary depending on production method and surface functionalization is required. In addition, the potential risks of pG flakes to aquatic organisms and human health should be considered or checked before releasing them to the environment.