Determination of heavy metals and their availability to plants in soil fertilized with different waste substances.Environ Monit Assess 2018; 190(10):567EM
Field trials were conducted in 2004-2015, in Bałcyny, on haplic Luvisol formed out of light boulder clay. The experiment consisted of the following treatments: control (no fertilization), NPK, manure (FYM), dried pelleted sewage sludge (DPSS), composted sewage sludge (CSS), compost made from municipal sewage sludge and straw (SSCS), compost Dano made from unsorted household waste (CUHW), and compost produced from urban green waste (CUGW). Over a period of 12 years, 30 t DM/ha of each manure and composts were used, that is, 10 t DM/ha in each rotation of a crop rotation sequence. Nitrogen fertilization was kept on the same level on all experimental plots. Soil samples from the 0- to 20-cm horizon were collected after the third rotation crop, which was winter wheat harvested in 2015. It has been demonstrated that CUHW raised the soil total Cu content the highest, while the soil content of Zn was elevated the most by DPSS. The content of the remaining heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Cr, Mn, and Fe) increased as well, but to a lesser extent. The soil abundance of phytoavailable forms of copper improved even greater (from 75% when fertilized with CUGW or CSS, up to 124% when treated with CUHW). Soil content of soluble forms of such metals as Zn, Pb, Cr, Mn, and Fe changed less. The content of all analyzed heavy metals in soil (a form approximating the total content) was significantly positively correlated with the content of organic carbon (C-org.). This is the evidence for stronger adsorption of the above elements in soil richer in organic matter. On the other hand, the content of available forms of heavy metals depended more on the soil pH than on its content of C-org.