A Narrative Review on Thrombolytics in Advanced CKD: Is it an Evidence-Based Therapy?Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2018; 32(5):463-475CD
A timely pharmacoinvasive strategy consisting of thrombolytic therapy (TT) plays a pivotal role in three major scenarios: acute ischemic stroke (AIS), acute myocardial infarction (STEMI), and massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Presence of advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD) (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), known to disturb thrombotic/thrombolytic equilibrium, causes difficulties for clinicians in evaluating risk-benefit balance, as current guidelines do not address the relationship between TT and the advanced CKD. This narrative review aims to evaluate the most important scientific resources regarding the evidences, benefits, and risks of using thrombolytics in advanced CKD.
We searched the electronic database of PubMed for studies evaluating the relationship between renal dysfunction and TT in patients with STEMI, AIS, and massive PE. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), observational studies including prospective or retrospective cohort studies, reviews, meta-analyses, and guidelines were included if referring to TT for one of the three scenarios in advanced CKD.
Prothrombotic conditions in CKD, associated with an increased risk of hemorrhages, can affect the safety and efficacy of TT. Concerns regarding in-hospital bleeding events and poor clinical outcomes subsequent to TT in advanced CKD continue to cause underutilization or delaying routine reperfusion therapy.
The impact of TT on the outcomes of advanced CKD patients is poorly understood to date, with scarce data available in current guidelines and conflicting results from observational studies. Until evidence-based data from RCTs will be obtained, the clinical challenge of maximizing benefits for this high-risk subgroup lays in the hands of practicing clinicians.