Dornase alfa for cystic fibrosis.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 09 06; 9:CD001127.CD
Dornase alfa is currently used as a mucolytic to treat pulmonary disease (the major cause of morbidity and mortality) in cystic fibrosis. It reduces mucus viscosity in the lungs, promoting improved clearance of secretions. This is an update of a previously published review.
To determine whether the use of dornase alfa in cystic fibrosis is associated with improved mortality and morbidity compared to placebo or other medications that improve airway clearance, and to identify any adverse events associated with its use.
We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearching relevant journals and abstracts from conferences. Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Register: 23 April 2018.Clinicaltrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were also searched to identify unpublished or ongoing trials. Date of most recent search: 07 June 2018.
All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing dornase alfa to placebo, standard therapy or other medications that improve airway clearance.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Authors independently assessed trials against the inclusion criteria; two authors carried out analysis of methodological quality and data extraction. GRADE was used to assess the level of evidence.
The searches identified 69 trials, of which 19 (2565 participants) met our inclusion criteria. Fifteen trials compared dornase alfa to placebo or no dornase alfa (2447 participants); two compared daily dornase to hypertonic saline (32 participants); one compared daily dornase alfa to hypertonic saline and alternate day dornase alfa (48 participants); one compared dornase alfa to mannitol and the combination of both drugs (38 participants). Trial duration varied from six days to three years.Dornase alfa compared to placebo or no treatmentDornase alfa improved forced expiratory volume at one second at one month (four trials, 248 participants), three months (one trial, 320 participants; moderate-quality evidence), six months (one trial, 647 participants; high-quality evidence) and two years (one trial, 410 participants). Limited low-quality evidence showed no difference between groups for changes in quality of life. There was a decrease in pulmonary exacerbations with dornase alfa in trials of up to two years (moderate-quality evidence). One trial that examined the cost of care, including the cost of dornase alfa, found that the cost savings from dornase alfa offset 18% to 38% of the medication costs.Dornase alfa: daily versus alternate dayOne cross-over trial (43 children) found no differences between treatment regimens for lung function, quality of life or pulmonary exacerbations (low-quality evidence).Dornase alfa compared to other medications that improve airway clearanceResults for these comparisons were mixed. One trial (43 children) showed a greater improvement in forced expiratory volume at one second for dornase alfa compared to hypertonic saline (low-quality evidence), and one trial (23 participants) reported no difference in lung function between dornase alfa and mannitol or dornase alfa and dornase alfa plus mannitol (low-quality evidence). One trial (23 participants) found a difference in quality of life favouring dornase alfa when compared to dornase alfa plus mannitol (low-quality evidence); other comparisons found no difference in this outcome (low-quality evidence). No trials in any comparison reported any difference between groups in the number of pulmonary exacerbations (low-quality evidence).When all comparisons are assessed, dornase alfa did not cause significantly more adverse effects than other treatments, except voice alteration and rash.