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Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study.
Environ Int. 2018 11; 120:572-583.EI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Anogenital distance (AGD) and the second to fourth finger (2D:4D) digit ratio may be early markers of in utero androgen exposure for the infant. Phthalates and phenols have been identified as endocrine disrupting chemicals.

OBJECTIVES

To study the association between prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) and AGD and the 2D:4D digit ratios.

METHODS

Single spot urine samples were collected in the first trimester from the MIREC Study and analyzed for phthalates and phenols. Anogenital distance (n = 394) at birth and 2D:4D digit ratios (n = 420) at 6 months were measured in male and female infants. Associations between maternal concentrations of phenols and phthalate metabolites and these outcomes were estimated using multiple linear regression models.

RESULTS

In females, the anoclitoris distance (ACD) was negatively associated with mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) (β = -1.24; 95% CI -1.91, -0.57) and positively associated with mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) (β = 0.65; 95% CI 0.12, 1.18) (masculinizing). In males, anopenile distance (APD) was positively associated with mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (β = 1.17; 95% CI 0.02, 2.32) and the molar sum of low molecular weight phthalates (ΣLMW). Female 2D:4D of the right hand was positively associated with MnBP and negatively with total BPA (masculinizing).

CONCLUSIONS

Significant associations were only observed for the long AGD metrics. Positive associations were observed between MnBP or LMW phthalates and APD in males. In females, prenatal MEP was associated with a masculinizing effect on ACD, while MBzP was associated with a feminizing effect. No significant associations were observed between prenatal phenols and AGD. Given the paucity of research on digit ratios and prenatal chemical exposures, it is difficult to say whether this metric will be a useful marker of prenatal androgen or anti-androgen exposure. Given the large number of associations examined, the statistical associations observed may have been due to Type 1 error. The inconsistencies in results between studies suggest that this issue is yet to be resolved.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada. Electronic address: Tye.Arbuckle@canada.ca.Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada; Clinical Research Unit, Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, Canada.University of Washington, Department of Pediatrics, Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA.Clinical Epidemiology Program, Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, ON, Canada.Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada.School of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec CHU Research Center, Quebec City, QC, Canada.Population Studies Division, Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada.Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Newborn Care, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, ON, Canada.Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30195175

Citation

Arbuckle, Tye E., et al. "Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Phenols and Infant Endocrine-sensitive Outcomes: the MIREC Study." Environment International, vol. 120, 2018, pp. 572-583.
Arbuckle TE, Agarwal A, MacPherson SH, et al. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study. Environ Int. 2018;120:572-583.
Arbuckle, T. E., Agarwal, A., MacPherson, S. H., Fraser, W. D., Sathyanarayana, S., Ramsay, T., Dodds, L., Muckle, G., Fisher, M., Foster, W., Walker, M., & Monnier, P. (2018). Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study. Environment International, 120, 572-583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.034
Arbuckle TE, et al. Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates and Phenols and Infant Endocrine-sensitive Outcomes: the MIREC Study. Environ Int. 2018;120:572-583. PubMed PMID: 30195175.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and infant endocrine-sensitive outcomes: The MIREC study. AU - Arbuckle,Tye E, AU - Agarwal,Amisha, AU - MacPherson,Susan H, AU - Fraser,William D, AU - Sathyanarayana,Sheela, AU - Ramsay,Tim, AU - Dodds,Linda, AU - Muckle,Gina, AU - Fisher,Mandy, AU - Foster,Warren, AU - Walker,Mark, AU - Monnier,Patricia, Y1 - 2018/09/06/ PY - 2018/05/30/received PY - 2018/08/08/revised PY - 2018/08/13/accepted PY - 2018/9/9/pubmed PY - 2019/3/14/medline PY - 2018/9/9/entrez KW - Anogenital distance KW - Bisphenol A KW - Digit length ratio KW - Phthalates KW - Pregnancy KW - Triclosan SP - 572 EP - 583 JF - Environment international JO - Environ Int VL - 120 N2 - BACKGROUND: Anogenital distance (AGD) and the second to fourth finger (2D:4D) digit ratio may be early markers of in utero androgen exposure for the infant. Phthalates and phenols have been identified as endocrine disrupting chemicals. OBJECTIVES: To study the association between prenatal exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA) and triclosan (TCS) and AGD and the 2D:4D digit ratios. METHODS: Single spot urine samples were collected in the first trimester from the MIREC Study and analyzed for phthalates and phenols. Anogenital distance (n = 394) at birth and 2D:4D digit ratios (n = 420) at 6 months were measured in male and female infants. Associations between maternal concentrations of phenols and phthalate metabolites and these outcomes were estimated using multiple linear regression models. RESULTS: In females, the anoclitoris distance (ACD) was negatively associated with mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) (β = -1.24; 95% CI -1.91, -0.57) and positively associated with mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) (β = 0.65; 95% CI 0.12, 1.18) (masculinizing). In males, anopenile distance (APD) was positively associated with mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) (β = 1.17; 95% CI 0.02, 2.32) and the molar sum of low molecular weight phthalates (ΣLMW). Female 2D:4D of the right hand was positively associated with MnBP and negatively with total BPA (masculinizing). CONCLUSIONS: Significant associations were only observed for the long AGD metrics. Positive associations were observed between MnBP or LMW phthalates and APD in males. In females, prenatal MEP was associated with a masculinizing effect on ACD, while MBzP was associated with a feminizing effect. No significant associations were observed between prenatal phenols and AGD. Given the paucity of research on digit ratios and prenatal chemical exposures, it is difficult to say whether this metric will be a useful marker of prenatal androgen or anti-androgen exposure. Given the large number of associations examined, the statistical associations observed may have been due to Type 1 error. The inconsistencies in results between studies suggest that this issue is yet to be resolved. SN - 1873-6750 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30195175/Prenatal_exposure_to_phthalates_and_phenols_and_infant_endocrine_sensitive_outcomes:_The_MIREC_study_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0160-4120(18)31136-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -