Mechanisms of resistance to thiamethoxam and dinotefuran compared to imidacloprid in the brown planthopper: Roles of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase and a P450 gene CYP6ER1.Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2018 Sep; 150:17-26.PB
The brown planthopper (BPH, Nilaparvata lugens) has developed high resistance to the first-generation neonicotinoids (imidacloprid). With commercialization and widespread field use of the second-(thiamethoxam) and third-(dinotefuran) generation neonicotinoids, resistance to these insecticides is also reported. We investigated the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-mediated detoxification in thiamethoxam- and dinotefuran- resistant in comparison to imidacloprid-resistant strains of BPH. In the three moderately resistant BPH strains selected separately with the three insecticides from a same susceptible strain, P450 activities were significantly enhanced over the susceptible control. Seven of 26 tested P450 genes were up-regulated and CYP6ER1 was a strongly over-expressed gene in all the three resistant strains. Knockdown of CYP6ER1 in the susceptible insects reduced P450 activity, retarded nymph growth and significantly increased sensitivity to each one of the three neonicotinoids. Taken together, we show that enhanced P450 activity and over-expression of CYP6ER1 gene are involved in BPH resistance to thiamethoxam and dinotefuran as to imidacloprid. These findings are of significance in management thiamethoxam and dinotefuran resistance in the BPH, especially in the management of potential cross-resistance to the three generations of neonicotinoids.