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Nature and Cognitive Perception of 4 Different Breakfast Meals Influence Satiety-Related Sensations and Postprandial Metabolic Responses but Have Little Effect on Food Choices and Intake Later in the Day in a Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Men.
J Nutr 2018; 148(10):1536-1546JN

Abstract

Background

Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better health status and healthier food intake throughout the day, but this association is a complex interaction of several factors.

Objective

This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional and cognitive-perceived characteristics of breakfast on metabolic and behavioral variables related to food intake.

Methods

The study was a randomized, crossover, controlled trial, with 4 experimental conditions consisting of 3 iso-energetic breakfasts and 1 energy-free control meal. Breakfasts had similar nutritional profiles but differed for glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and perceived healthiness, satiety, palatability, or energy content. Fifteen healthy normal-weight men [means ± SDs; age: 24 ± 2 y; body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) 23.4 ± 1.6] underwent each experimental condition in random order during 4 different weeks, separated by ≥1-wk washout. On the third day of each intervention week, postprandial blood variables (with insulin as primary outcome), satiety ratings, and food intake during an ad libitum lunch consumed 4 h after breakfast (secondary outcomes) were measured for each experimental condition.

Results

A main effect of time, treatment, and time × treatment was found for postprandial insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.001 for all) after having the 3 iso-energetic breakfasts or the energy-free control one. Postprandial satiety was similar for the 3 energy-containing breakfasts, but higher when compared with the energy-free control (P < 0.001). No difference in energy intake was observed for the ad libitum lunch, whereas prolonged breakfast skipping was compensated by an increase (around +10%) in the average energy intake during the rest of the day, resulting in no differences in the total daily energy intake among the 4 conditions.

Conclusions

Although other advantages might exist for breakfasts based on low-GI/low-GL foods, our findings support the hypothesis that minor differences in nutritional and perceived characteristics of breakfast are of limited importance regarding medium-term energy intake in healthy men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as BRNN-014 NCT02516956.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Drugs.Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Drugs.Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Drugs.Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.Cardio-Diabetes and Core Lab Unit, Diabetes Research Institute, Department of Internal Medicine, IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy.Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.Department of Psychology, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Milan, Italy.Department of Medicine and Surgery, University of Parma, Parma, Italy.Human Nutrition Unit, Department of Food and Drugs.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30204905

Citation

Rosi, Alice, et al. "Nature and Cognitive Perception of 4 Different Breakfast Meals Influence Satiety-Related Sensations and Postprandial Metabolic Responses but Have Little Effect On Food Choices and Intake Later in the Day in a Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Men." The Journal of Nutrition, vol. 148, no. 10, 2018, pp. 1536-1546.
Rosi A, Martini D, Scazzina F, et al. Nature and Cognitive Perception of 4 Different Breakfast Meals Influence Satiety-Related Sensations and Postprandial Metabolic Responses but Have Little Effect on Food Choices and Intake Later in the Day in a Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Men. J Nutr. 2018;148(10):1536-1546.
Rosi, A., Martini, D., Scazzina, F., Dall'Aglio, E., Leonardi, R., Monti, L., ... Brighenti, F. (2018). Nature and Cognitive Perception of 4 Different Breakfast Meals Influence Satiety-Related Sensations and Postprandial Metabolic Responses but Have Little Effect on Food Choices and Intake Later in the Day in a Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Men. The Journal of Nutrition, 148(10), pp. 1536-1546. doi:10.1093/jn/nxy160.
Rosi A, et al. Nature and Cognitive Perception of 4 Different Breakfast Meals Influence Satiety-Related Sensations and Postprandial Metabolic Responses but Have Little Effect On Food Choices and Intake Later in the Day in a Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Men. J Nutr. 2018 10 1;148(10):1536-1546. PubMed PMID: 30204905.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Nature and Cognitive Perception of 4 Different Breakfast Meals Influence Satiety-Related Sensations and Postprandial Metabolic Responses but Have Little Effect on Food Choices and Intake Later in the Day in a Randomized Crossover Trial in Healthy Men. AU - Rosi,Alice, AU - Martini,Daniela, AU - Scazzina,Francesca, AU - Dall'Aglio,Elisabetta, AU - Leonardi,Roberto, AU - Monti,Lucilla, AU - Fasano,Fabrizio, AU - Di Dio,Cinzia, AU - Riggio,Lucia, AU - Brighenti,Furio, PY - 2018/01/18/received PY - 2018/07/01/accepted PY - 2018/9/12/pubmed PY - 2019/5/6/medline PY - 2018/9/12/entrez SP - 1536 EP - 1546 JF - The Journal of nutrition JO - J. Nutr. VL - 148 IS - 10 N2 - Background: Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better health status and healthier food intake throughout the day, but this association is a complex interaction of several factors. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effect of nutritional and cognitive-perceived characteristics of breakfast on metabolic and behavioral variables related to food intake. Methods: The study was a randomized, crossover, controlled trial, with 4 experimental conditions consisting of 3 iso-energetic breakfasts and 1 energy-free control meal. Breakfasts had similar nutritional profiles but differed for glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and perceived healthiness, satiety, palatability, or energy content. Fifteen healthy normal-weight men [means ± SDs; age: 24 ± 2 y; body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) 23.4 ± 1.6] underwent each experimental condition in random order during 4 different weeks, separated by ≥1-wk washout. On the third day of each intervention week, postprandial blood variables (with insulin as primary outcome), satiety ratings, and food intake during an ad libitum lunch consumed 4 h after breakfast (secondary outcomes) were measured for each experimental condition. Results: A main effect of time, treatment, and time × treatment was found for postprandial insulin, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acids (P < 0.001 for all) after having the 3 iso-energetic breakfasts or the energy-free control one. Postprandial satiety was similar for the 3 energy-containing breakfasts, but higher when compared with the energy-free control (P < 0.001). No difference in energy intake was observed for the ad libitum lunch, whereas prolonged breakfast skipping was compensated by an increase (around +10%) in the average energy intake during the rest of the day, resulting in no differences in the total daily energy intake among the 4 conditions. Conclusions: Although other advantages might exist for breakfasts based on low-GI/low-GL foods, our findings support the hypothesis that minor differences in nutritional and perceived characteristics of breakfast are of limited importance regarding medium-term energy intake in healthy men. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as BRNN-014 NCT02516956. SN - 1541-6100 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30204905/Nature_and_Cognitive_Perception_of_4_Different_Breakfast_Meals_Influence_Satiety_Related_Sensations_and_Postprandial_Metabolic_Responses_but_Have_Little_Effect_on_Food_Choices_and_Intake_Later_in_the_Day_in_a_Randomized_Crossover_Trial_in_Healthy_Men_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jn/nxy160 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -