Prevalence of Apolipoprotein E Polymorphisms in Alzheimer's Disease, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Healthy Elderly: A Northern Greece Study.Neurodegener Dis 2018; 18(4):216-224ND
Apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOEε4) is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). APOEε4 carriers have a higher risk of cognitive impairment and AD in a gene dose-dependent manner. The above notion is investigated in the Greek population.
A sample of 1,703 subjects (967 AD patients, 576 mild cognitive impairment [MCI] and 160 Healthy Elderly), was genotyped for APOE from 2008 to 2017. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood using the QIAamp Blood DNA purification kit (Qiagen Inc., USA). Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc tests, Pearson chi-square test, and binary logistic regression models were used for the statistical analysis.
The APOE genotype and allele frequencies in AD group were significantly different from those in the Control and MCI groups. The frequencies of ε4/4 homozygotes were 1.9, 1.6, and 5.7%, while the ε4/- carriers' distribution was 22.5, 24.1, and 37.4% in the Control, MCI, and AD groups respectively. The estimated odds of ε4/4 for AD was 5.731-fold higher compared to the estimated odds of ε3/3. The interaction between gender and APOE did not have a significant effect on the odds for MCI (p = 0.942) and AD (p = 0.984).
In Greece, APOE ε4 presence is related to an increased risk for AD in a dose-related manner. Contrary to long-standing views, men and women with the APOE ε4 genotype have nearly the same odds of developing MCI and AD.