Prevalence and Genetic Diversity of Grabloviruses in Free-Living Vitis spp.Plant Dis. 2018 11; 102(11):2308-2316.PD
The distribution and diversity of grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) and wild Vitis virus 1 (WVV1) (genus Grablovirus; family Geminiviridae) were determined in free-living Vitis spp. in northern California and New York from 2013 to 2017. Grabloviruses were detected by polymerase chain reaction in 28% (57 of 203) of samples from California but in none of the 163 samples from New York. The incidence of GRBV in free-living vines was significantly higher in samples from California counties with high compared with low grape production (χ2 = 83.09; P < 0.001), and in samples near (<5 km) to compared with far (>5 km) from vineyards (χ2 = 57.58; P < 0.001). These results suggested a directional spread of GRBV inoculum predominantly from vineyards to free-living Vitis spp. WVV1 incidence was also significantly higher in areas with higher grape production acreage (χ2 = 16.02; P < 0.001). However, in contrast to GRBV, no differential distribution of WVV1 incidence was observed with regard to distance from vineyards (χ2 = 0.88; P = 0.3513). Two distinct phylogenetic clades were identified for both GRBV and WVV1 isolates from free-living Vitis spp., although the nucleotide sequence variability of the genomic diversity fragment was higher for WWV1 (94.3 to 99.8% sequence identity within clade 1 isolates and 90.1 to 100% within clade 2 isolates) than GRBV (98.3% between clade 1 isolates and 96.9 to 100% within clade 2 isolates). Additionally, evidence for intraspecific recombination events was found in WVV1 isolates and confirmed in GRBV isolates. The prevalence of grabloviruses in California free-living vines highlights the need for vigilance regarding potential grablovirus inoculum sources in order to protect new vineyard plantings and foundation stock vineyards in California.