The Relative Occurrence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 and Grapevine red blotch virus in Washington State Vineyards.Plant Dis. 2018 11; 102(11):2129-2135.PD
Vineyard surveys were conducted for three consecutive seasons in eastern Washington State, the major grapevine-growing region in the state, to document the occurrence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) and Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV). The majority of samples were collected from red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera) cultivars exhibiting symptoms of or suspected for grapevine leafroll (GLD) and red blotch (GRBD) diseases. A limited number of samples from white-berried cultivars were collected randomly due to the lack of visual symptoms. Samples were collected from a total of 2,063 grapevines from 18 red-berried cultivars and seven white-berried cultivars planted in eight American Viticultural Areas and tested for GLRaV-3 and GRBV using RT-PCR and PCR, respectively. The results showed 67.77% and 6.01% of total samples positive for GLRaV-3 and GRBV, respectively, and 9.06% of samples positive for both viruses. About 17% of samples tested negative for the two viruses, but some of these samples were positive for GLRaV-2 and GLRaV-4. Overall results indicated that GLRaV-3 was more common than GRBV, independent of cultivars and the geographic origin of samples. Due to variability in symptoms in red-berried cultivars, virus-specific diagnostic assays were deemed necessary for reliable identification of GLRaV-3 and GRBV and to differentiate GLD and GRBD symptoms from those induced by biotic and abiotic stresses in vineyards. A multiplex PCR protocol was developed for simultaneous detection of GLRaV-3 and GRBV in grapevine samples. A global phylogenetic analysis of GRBV genome sequences revealed segregation of virus isolates from Washington State vineyards into two distinct clades, with the majority of isolates belonging to clade II.