Toxicity of copper oxide nanoparticles to Neotropical species Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Hyphessobrycon eques.Environ Pollut. 2018 Dec; 243(Pt A):723-733.EP
The increase of production and consumption of copper oxide nanostructures in several areas contributes to their release into aquatic ecosystems. Toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), in particular, on tropical aquatic organisms are still unknown, representing a risk for biota. In this study, the effects of rod-shaped CuO NPs on the Neotropical species Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Hyphessobrycon eques were investigated. We also compared the toxicity of CuO NPs and CuCl2 on these species to investigate the contribution of particles and cupper ions to the CuO NPs toxicity. Considering the low copper ions release from CuO NPs (<1%), our results revealed that the toxicity of CuO NPs to C. silvestrii and H. eques was mainly induced by the NPs. The 48 h EC50 for C. silvestrii was 12.6 ± 0.7 μg Cu L-1 and for H. eques the 96 h LC50 was 211.4 ± 57.5 μg Cu L-1 of CuO NPs. There was significant decrease in reproduction, feeding inhibition and increase in reactive oxidative species (ROS) generation in C. silvestrii exposed to CuO NPs. In fish H. eques, sublethal exposure to CuO NPs caused an increase in ROS generation in gill cells and an increase in cells number that were in early apoptotic and necrotic stages. Our results showed that CuO NPs caused toxic effects to C. silvestrii and H. eques and ROS play an important role in the toxicity pathway observed. Data also indicated that C. silvestrii was among the most sensitive species for CuO NPs. Based on predicted environmental concentration in water bodies, CuO NPs pose potential ecological risks for C. silvestrii and H. eques and other tropical freshwater organisms.