Bioactive Composition, Antioxidant Activity, and Anticancer Potential of Freeze-Dried Extracts from Defatted Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) Seeds.Medicines (Basel). 2018 Sep 18; 5(3)M
Background: Gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng) seeds have long been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for numerous conditions due to a range of bioactive compounds. This study investigated the solvent extraction of compounds that could be responsible for antioxidant activity and anticancer potential. Methods: Defatted Gac seed kernel powder was extracted with different solvents: 100% water, 50% methanol:water, 70% ethanol:water, water saturated butanol, 100% methanol, and 100% ethanol. Trypsin inhibitors, saponins, phenolics, and antioxidant activity using the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays; and anticancer potential against two melanoma cancer cell lines (MM418C1 and D24) were analysed to determine the best extraction solvents. Results: Water was best for extracting trypsin inhibitors (581.4 ± 18.5 mg trypsin/mg) and reducing the viability of MM418C1 and D24 melanoma cells (75.5 ± 1.3 and 66.9 ± 2.2%, respectively); the anticancer potential against the MM418C1 cells was highly correlated with trypsin inhibitors (r = 0.92, p < 0.05), but there was no correlation between anticancer potential and antioxidant activity. The water saturated butanol had the highest saponins (71.8 ± 4.31 mg aescin equivalents/g), phenolic compounds (20.4 ± 0.86 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), and antioxidant activity, but these measures were not related to anticancer potential. Conclusions: Water yielded a Gac seed extract, rich in trypsin inhibitors, which had high anticancer potential against two melanoma cell lines.