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Transfer RNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves: biogenesis, biological functions and their roles in diseases.
J Mol Med (Berl). 2018 11; 96(11):1167-1176.JM

Abstract

The number of studies on non-coding RNAs has increased substantially in recent years owing to their importance in gene regulation. However, the biological functions of small RNAs from abundant species of housekeeping non-coding RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, etc.) remain a highly studied topic. tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) refer to the specific cleavage of tRNAs by specific nucleases [e.g., Dicer and angiogenin (ANG)] in particular cells or tissues or under certain conditions such as stress and hypoxia. tsRNAs are a type of non-coding small RNA that are widely found in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcriptomes and are generated from mature tRNAs or precursor tRNAs at different sites. There are two main types of tsRNAs, tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) and tRNA halves. tRFs are 14-30 nucleotides (nt) long and mainly consist of three subclasses: tRF-5, tRF-3, and tRF-1. tRNA halves, which are 31-40 nt long, are generated by specific cleavage in the anticodon loops of mature tRNAs. There are two types of tRNA halves, 5'-tRNA halves and 3'-tRNA halves. tsRNAs have multiple biological functions including acting as signaling molecules in stress responses and as regulators of gene expression. Additionally, they have been considered to be involved in RNA processing, cell proliferation, translation suppression, the modulation of DNA damage response, and neurodegeneration. More importantly, they are closely related to the occurrence of many human diseases such as tumors, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, and neurological diseases. Moreover, tsRNAs have the potential to become new biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Continuous investigations will help us to understand their generation and regulatory mechanisms as well as the possible roles of tRFs and tRNA halves.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University and Ningbo No. 1 Hospital, Ningbo, 315010, China.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China.Department of Gastroenterology, The Affiliated Hospital of Medical School of Ningbo University and Ningbo No. 1 Hospital, Ningbo, 315010, China. yanzhilong@nbu.edu.cn.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Pathophysiology, Medical School of Ningbo University, Ningbo, 315211, China. guojunming@nbu.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30232504

Citation

Shen, Yijing, et al. "Transfer RNA-derived Fragments and tRNA Halves: Biogenesis, Biological Functions and Their Roles in Diseases." Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany), vol. 96, no. 11, 2018, pp. 1167-1176.
Shen Y, Yu X, Zhu L, et al. Transfer RNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves: biogenesis, biological functions and their roles in diseases. J Mol Med. 2018;96(11):1167-1176.
Shen, Y., Yu, X., Zhu, L., Li, T., Yan, Z., & Guo, J. (2018). Transfer RNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves: biogenesis, biological functions and their roles in diseases. Journal of Molecular Medicine (Berlin, Germany), 96(11), 1167-1176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00109-018-1693-y
Shen Y, et al. Transfer RNA-derived Fragments and tRNA Halves: Biogenesis, Biological Functions and Their Roles in Diseases. J Mol Med. 2018;96(11):1167-1176. PubMed PMID: 30232504.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Transfer RNA-derived fragments and tRNA halves: biogenesis, biological functions and their roles in diseases. AU - Shen,Yijing, AU - Yu,Xiuchong, AU - Zhu,Linwen, AU - Li,Tianwen, AU - Yan,Zhilong, AU - Guo,Junming, Y1 - 2018/09/19/ PY - 2018/04/04/received PY - 2018/09/05/accepted PY - 2018/08/30/revised PY - 2018/9/21/pubmed PY - 2019/11/7/medline PY - 2018/9/21/entrez KW - Biogenesis KW - Biological functions KW - Diseases KW - tRNA halves KW - tRNA-derived fragments SP - 1167 EP - 1176 JF - Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany) JO - J. Mol. Med. VL - 96 IS - 11 N2 - The number of studies on non-coding RNAs has increased substantially in recent years owing to their importance in gene regulation. However, the biological functions of small RNAs from abundant species of housekeeping non-coding RNAs (rRNA, tRNA, etc.) remain a highly studied topic. tRNA-derived small RNAs (tsRNAs) refer to the specific cleavage of tRNAs by specific nucleases [e.g., Dicer and angiogenin (ANG)] in particular cells or tissues or under certain conditions such as stress and hypoxia. tsRNAs are a type of non-coding small RNA that are widely found in the prokaryotic and eukaryotic transcriptomes and are generated from mature tRNAs or precursor tRNAs at different sites. There are two main types of tsRNAs, tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) and tRNA halves. tRFs are 14-30 nucleotides (nt) long and mainly consist of three subclasses: tRF-5, tRF-3, and tRF-1. tRNA halves, which are 31-40 nt long, are generated by specific cleavage in the anticodon loops of mature tRNAs. There are two types of tRNA halves, 5'-tRNA halves and 3'-tRNA halves. tsRNAs have multiple biological functions including acting as signaling molecules in stress responses and as regulators of gene expression. Additionally, they have been considered to be involved in RNA processing, cell proliferation, translation suppression, the modulation of DNA damage response, and neurodegeneration. More importantly, they are closely related to the occurrence of many human diseases such as tumors, infectious diseases, metabolic diseases, and neurological diseases. Moreover, tsRNAs have the potential to become new biomarkers for disease diagnosis. Continuous investigations will help us to understand their generation and regulatory mechanisms as well as the possible roles of tRFs and tRNA halves. SN - 1432-1440 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30232504/Transfer_RNA_derived_fragments_and_tRNA_halves:_biogenesis_biological_functions_and_their_roles_in_diseases_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00109-018-1693-y DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -