Remodeling of Retinal Architecture in Diabetic Retinopathy: Disruption of Ocular Physiology and Visual Functions by Inflammatory Gene Products and Pyroptosis.Front Physiol. 2018; 9:1268.FP
Diabetic patients suffer from a host of physiological abnormalities beyond just those of glucose metabolism. These abnormalities often lead to systemic inflammation via modulation of several inflammation-related genes, their respective gene products, homocysteine metabolism, and pyroptosis. The very nature of this homeostatic disruption re-sets the overall physiology of diabetics via upregulation of immune responses, enhanced retinal neovascularization, upregulation of epigenetic events, and disturbances in cells' redox regulatory system. This altered pathophysiological milieu can lead to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR), a debilitating vision-threatening eye condition with microvascular complications. DR is the most prevalent cause of irreversible blindness in the working-age adults throughout the world as it can lead to severe structural and functional remodeling of the retina, decreasing vision and thus diminishing the quality of life. In this manuscript, we attempt to summarize recent developments and new insights to explore the very nature of this intertwined crosstalk between components of the immune system and their metabolic orchestrations to elucidate the pathophysiology of DR. Understanding the multifaceted nature of the cellular and molecular factors that are involved in DR could reveal new targets for effective diagnostics, therapeutics, prognostics, preventive tools, and finally strategies to combat the development and progression of DR in susceptible subjects.