Substitution of poultry and red meat with fish and the risk of peripheral arterial disease: a Danish cohort study.Eur J Nutr. 2019 Oct; 58(7):2731-2739.EJ
The aims of this study were to examine associations between substitutions of poultry and red meat intake with fish (total, lean or fatty) and the risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). We hypothesised that a higher intake of fish and a concomitant lower intake of poultry or red meat were associated with a lower risk of incident PAD.
We used data from a Danish cohort where middle-aged participants filled in food frequency and lifestyle questionnaires at baseline. During follow-up, we identified participants with valid diagnoses of PAD and analysed data by multivariable Cox regression analyses. Substitutions of 150 g/week of either poultry, red meat (processed or unprocessed) with 150 g/week of fish (total, lean or fatty) were explored.
We followed the cohort (n = 54,597) for a median of 13.6 years and identified 897 cases with PAD. We found modest lower rates of PAD when intake of fish replaced a concomitant lower intake of unprocessed (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.88-1.01) and processed red meat (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.87-1.02). Replacing unprocessed (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.79-1.00) or processed red meat (HR 0.88, 95% CI 0.78-1.01) with fatty fish was associated with lower rates of PAD. No associations were observed when fish intake replaced poultry or when lean fish replaced red meat.
This study suggests that substituting red meat with fish and especially fatty fish may be associated with a lower risk of PAD, although not statistically significant. Replacing poultry with fish was not associated with the risk of PAD.