Lifestyle Clusters in School-Aged Youth and Longitudinal Associations with Fatness: The UP&DOWN Study.J Pediatr. 2018 12; 203:317-324.e1.JPed
To identify lifestyle clusters in children and adolescents, to analyze associations between lifestyle clusters and body fat percentage (BFP) at baseline and 2 years later, and to examine if BFP at baseline is associated with BFP 2 years later.
This longitudinal study involved 1634 Spanish youth (804 girls) aged 8-18 years (mean, 12.45 ± 2.51 years). Cluster analysis was performed by including objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity and self-reported screen time and diet. The associations between cluster membership and BFP was analyzed through general linear models. All the analyses were separated by 3 age groups: older children, younger adolescents, and older adolescents.
Four clusters were identified in the 3 age groups: (1) healthy lifestyle cluster (high moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, low screen and total sedentary time), (2) predominantly sedentary cluster, (3) mainly screen time consumers cluster, and (4) nonhealthy lifestyle cluster (predominantly low moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and unhealthy diet). Participants belonging to the healthy lifestyle cluster showed significantly lower BFP at baseline and 2 years later compared with the other profiles. These differences remained significant when adjusted by BFP at baseline within the younger adolescents. Moreover, BFP at baseline positively predicted BFP 2 years later in all groups.
These findings identify distinct lifestyle patterns. These clusters could be useful to develop interventions to reduce overweight and obesity in children and adolescents.