Endogenous Omega (n)-3 Fatty Acids in Fat-1 Mice Attenuated Depression-Like Behavior, Imbalance between Microglial M1 and M2 Phenotypes, and Dysfunction of Neurotrophins Induced by Lipopolysaccharide Administration.Nutrients 2018; 10(10)N
n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been reported to improve depression. However, PUFA purities, caloric content, and ratios in different diets may affect the results. By using Fat-1 mice which convert n-6 to n-3 PUFAs in the brain, this study further evaluated anti-depressant mechanisms of n-3 PUFAs in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model. Adult male Fat-1 and wild-type (WT) mice were fed soybean oil diet for 8 weeks. Depression-like behaviors were measured 24 h after saline or LPS central administration. In WT littermates, LPS reduced sucrose intake, but increased immobility in forced-swimming and tail suspension tests. Microglial M1 phenotype CD11b expression and concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-17 were elevated, while M2 phenotype-related IL-4, IL-10, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were decreased. LPS also reduced the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine receptor kinase B (Trk B), while increasing glial fibrillary acidic protein expression and pro-BDNF, p75, NO, and iNOS levels. In Fat-1 mice, LPS-induced behavioral changes were attenuated, which were associated with decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines and reversed changes in p75, NO, iNOS, and BDNF. Gas chromatography assay confirmed increased n-3 PUFA levels and n-3/n-6 ratios in the brains of Fat-1 mice. In conclusion, endogenous n-3 PUFAs may improve LPS-induced depression-like behavior through balancing M1 and M2-phenotypes and normalizing BDNF function.