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Does the Geriatric Depression Scale measure depression in Parkinson's disease?
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018 12; 33(12):1662-1670.IJ

Abstract

The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is recommended for screening depression in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Empirical evidence, however, is limited regarding its validity and factor structure in PD. Thus, the current study sought to evaluate the convergent and divergent validity of the GDS, as well as the structure and validity of the derived factors.

METHOD

Nondemented individuals with PD (n = 158) completed the GDS-30, and items were subjected to a principle component analysis. Geriatric Depression Scale total and factor scores were correlated with depression items from the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRSd) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMDd), as well as with the Apathy Scale (AS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale, and a Subjective Cognitive Function composite score.

RESULTS

The GDS total score was strongly correlated with divergent neuropsychiatric measures (AS, r = 0.57; STAI, r = 0.66; MFIS, r = 0.60), while only moderately correlated with convergent measures (MDS-UPDRSd, r = 0.36; HAMDd, r = 0.32; Ps < 0.05). Linear regression analyses revealed standardized measures of anxiety, apathy, and fatigue independently predicted the GDS total score, while depression items (MDS-UPDRSd and HAMDd) failed to reach significance. Three independent factors were identified: Anxiety, Apathy, and Fatigue. These factors were significantly predicted by their respective convergent measures.

CONCLUSIONS

Taken together, our findings suggest that the GDS and its subscales appear to primarily measure anxiety, apathy, and fatigue in PD, or alternatively, these symptom dimensions may be predominant in PD-depression. Future research with clinically diagnosed samples is needed to confirm these initial findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California.Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California. Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California. Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California. Department of Neurosciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.Research Service, Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, California. Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30251374

Citation

Lopez, Francesca V., et al. "Does the Geriatric Depression Scale Measure Depression in Parkinson's Disease?" International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, vol. 33, no. 12, 2018, pp. 1662-1670.
Lopez FV, Split M, Filoteo JV, et al. Does the Geriatric Depression Scale measure depression in Parkinson's disease? Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018;33(12):1662-1670.
Lopez, F. V., Split, M., Filoteo, J. V., Litvan, I., Moore, R. C., Pirogovsky-Turk, E., Liu, L., Lessig, S., & Schiehser, D. M. (2018). Does the Geriatric Depression Scale measure depression in Parkinson's disease? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 33(12), 1662-1670. https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4970
Lopez FV, et al. Does the Geriatric Depression Scale Measure Depression in Parkinson's Disease. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2018;33(12):1662-1670. PubMed PMID: 30251374.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Does the Geriatric Depression Scale measure depression in Parkinson's disease? AU - Lopez,Francesca V, AU - Split,Molly, AU - Filoteo,J Vincent, AU - Litvan,Irene, AU - Moore,Raeanne C, AU - Pirogovsky-Turk,Eva, AU - Liu,Lin, AU - Lessig,Stephanie, AU - Schiehser,Dawn M, Y1 - 2018/09/25/ PY - 2017/12/08/received PY - 2018/08/06/accepted PY - 2018/9/27/pubmed PY - 2019/5/22/medline PY - 2018/9/26/entrez KW - Parkinson's disease KW - anxiety KW - apathy KW - depression KW - factors KW - fatigue KW - validity SP - 1662 EP - 1670 JF - International journal of geriatric psychiatry JO - Int J Geriatr Psychiatry VL - 33 IS - 12 N2 - : The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is recommended for screening depression in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Empirical evidence, however, is limited regarding its validity and factor structure in PD. Thus, the current study sought to evaluate the convergent and divergent validity of the GDS, as well as the structure and validity of the derived factors. METHOD: Nondemented individuals with PD (n = 158) completed the GDS-30, and items were subjected to a principle component analysis. Geriatric Depression Scale total and factor scores were correlated with depression items from the Movement Disorder Society Unified Parkinson's disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRSd) and Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMDd), as well as with the Apathy Scale (AS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Parkinson's disease Sleep Scale, and a Subjective Cognitive Function composite score. RESULTS: The GDS total score was strongly correlated with divergent neuropsychiatric measures (AS, r = 0.57; STAI, r = 0.66; MFIS, r = 0.60), while only moderately correlated with convergent measures (MDS-UPDRSd, r = 0.36; HAMDd, r = 0.32; Ps < 0.05). Linear regression analyses revealed standardized measures of anxiety, apathy, and fatigue independently predicted the GDS total score, while depression items (MDS-UPDRSd and HAMDd) failed to reach significance. Three independent factors were identified: Anxiety, Apathy, and Fatigue. These factors were significantly predicted by their respective convergent measures. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our findings suggest that the GDS and its subscales appear to primarily measure anxiety, apathy, and fatigue in PD, or alternatively, these symptom dimensions may be predominant in PD-depression. Future research with clinically diagnosed samples is needed to confirm these initial findings. SN - 1099-1166 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30251374/Does_the_Geriatric_Depression_Scale_measure_depression_in_Parkinson's_disease L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/gps.4970 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -