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Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways.
Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2019; 20(1):92-110.CP

Abstract

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged adults around the world. The proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the severe vision threatening stages of the disorder. Although, a huge body of research exists in elaborating the pathological mechanisms that lead to the development of DR, the certainty and the correlation amongst these pathways remain ambiguous. The complexity of DR lies in the multifactorial pathological perturbations that are instrumental in both the disease development and its progression. Therefore, a holistic perspective with an understanding of these pathways and their correlation may explain the pathogenesis of DR as a unifying mechanism. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are the crucial components that are implicated in the pathogenesis of DR. Of these, hyperglycemia appears to be the initiating central component around which other pathological processes operate. Thus, this review discusses the role of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of DR, and highlights the cross-talk amongst these pathways in an attempt to understand the complex interplay of these mechanisms. Further, an effort has been made to identify the knowledge gap and the key players in each pathway that may serve as potential therapeutic drug targets.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, Punjabi University, Patiala, India.Cytogenetics Laboratory, Greenwood Genetic Center, Greenwood, South Carolina, SC, United States.The International School Bangalore, Karnataka, India.Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30264677

Citation

Sahajpal, Nikhil Shri, et al. "Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways." Current Protein & Peptide Science, vol. 20, no. 1, 2019, pp. 92-110.
Sahajpal NS, Goel RK, Chaubey A, et al. Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2019;20(1):92-110.
Sahajpal, N. S., Goel, R. K., Chaubey, A., Aurora, R., & Jain, S. K. (2019). Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways. Current Protein & Peptide Science, 20(1), 92-110. https://doi.org/10.2174/1389203719666180928123449
Sahajpal NS, et al. Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2019;20(1):92-110. PubMed PMID: 30264677.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pathological Perturbations in Diabetic Retinopathy: Hyperglycemia, AGEs, Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Pathways. AU - Sahajpal,Nikhil Shri, AU - Goel,Rajesh Kumar, AU - Chaubey,Alka, AU - Aurora,Rohan, AU - Jain,Subheet Kumar, PY - 2018/04/25/received PY - 2018/08/10/revised PY - 2017/08/29/accepted PY - 2018/9/29/pubmed PY - 2018/12/12/medline PY - 2018/9/29/entrez KW - AGEs KW - Pathophysiology KW - cross-talk KW - hexosamine pathway KW - hyperglycemia KW - inflammation KW - oxidative stress KW - polyol pathway. SP - 92 EP - 110 JF - Current protein & peptide science JO - Curr Protein Pept Sci VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - Diabetic retinopathy (DR) remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged adults around the world. The proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and diabetic macular edema (DME) are the severe vision threatening stages of the disorder. Although, a huge body of research exists in elaborating the pathological mechanisms that lead to the development of DR, the certainty and the correlation amongst these pathways remain ambiguous. The complexity of DR lies in the multifactorial pathological perturbations that are instrumental in both the disease development and its progression. Therefore, a holistic perspective with an understanding of these pathways and their correlation may explain the pathogenesis of DR as a unifying mechanism. Hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are the crucial components that are implicated in the pathogenesis of DR. Of these, hyperglycemia appears to be the initiating central component around which other pathological processes operate. Thus, this review discusses the role of hyperglycemia, oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of DR, and highlights the cross-talk amongst these pathways in an attempt to understand the complex interplay of these mechanisms. Further, an effort has been made to identify the knowledge gap and the key players in each pathway that may serve as potential therapeutic drug targets. SN - 1875-5550 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30264677/Pathological_Perturbations_in_Diabetic_Retinopathy:_Hyperglycemia_AGEs_Oxidative_Stress_and_Inflammatory_Pathways_ L2 - http://www.eurekaselect.com/165752/article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -