Ecotoxicological effects of fertilizers made from pulping waste liquor on earthworm Eisenia fetida.Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Dec 30; 166:237-241.EE
In recent years, increasing efforts have focused on production of organic-inorganic compound fertilizers using ammonium sulfite pulping waste liquor. However, their ecological effects on soil have not been studied. In this study, earthworm Eisenia fetida was exposed to various doses (0, 0.13, 0.26 and 0.52 kg/m2) for different time (7, 14, 21, and 28 d) to evaluate the effects of fertilizers made from pulping waste liquor, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant enzymes activities, glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage. Results showed that there were significant increase of ROS and MDA levels after 14 d, inducing production of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)) as well as GST. Before 14 d, excess ROS and MDA caused damage to the DNA of earthworms, leading to gradual increase of Olive tail moment (OTM) in the comet assay. With the exposure time extended to 28 d, owing to the combined effects of elimination of free radicals by antioxidant enzymes and detoxification enzymes as well as self-repairing function of cells, ROS and MDA levels declined slightly and OTM gradually decreased. In summary, this study indicated that there was a toxicological effect on earthworms when fertilizers made from pulping waste liquor were applied to soil, which needs more attention.