How sulphur dioxide and storage temperature contribute to patulin degradation in homemade apple juice.Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2018 Sep 01; 69(3):258-263.AH
Mycotoxin patulin is one of the quality indicators for apple juice. Like other mycotoxins, it raises consumer health concerns. The issue of low quality is particularly relevant for apples provided by small producers, whose quality control may not be standardised. As sulphur dioxide (SO2) is common in fruit preservation against fungi, the aim of this study was to determine how efficient it is in degrading patulin in apple juices stored in real-life conditions. This included refrigerated (4 °C) and non-refrigerated warehouses/environments (30 °C) over 8, 10, 12, and 20 weeks of storage. Apple juice was diluted to 0.010 μg g-1, 0.050 μg g-1, and 0.100 μg g-1 of patulin. SO2 was added to each sample in the amounts of 250 μg mL-1 and 50 μg mL-1. Untreated juice samples for each patulin concentration served as controls under the same experimental conditions. Patulin content was determined with high performance liquid chromatography. The best degradation was observed with 250 μg mL-1 of SO2 at 30 °C regardless of the patulin baseline concentration. Although treatment with SO2 and refrigeration did not fully remove patulin, it was highly efficient over twelve weeks of storage. Our results suggest that patulin levels can be reduced between 33 and 100 % at 30 °C and up to 100 % at 4 °C.