Acute Kidney Injury among Hospitalized Children in China.Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2018; 13(12):1791-1800CJ
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES
High-quality epidemiologic data on AKI in children are particularly lacking in developing countries. This study aimed to assess the epidemiology and clinical correlates of AKI among hospitalized children in China.
DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS
We performed a multicenter study, in a cohort of hospitalized children aged 1 month to 18 years, from 25 general and children's hospitals in China during 2013-2015. We obtained patient-level data from the electronic hospitalization information system and laboratory databases of all children who had at least two serum creatinine tests within any 7-day window during their first 30 days of hospitalization. We identified AKI events according to the creatinine criteria of Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes. The in-hospital outcomes of AKI, including mortality, kidney recovery, and length of stay, were assessed. We estimated the corresponding hazard ratios using a Cox proportional hazard model, with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, and clinical procedures.
A total of 19,908 (20%) patients with AKI were identified among 101,836 pediatric inpatients, of which 7220 (7%) were community acquired and 12,688 (13%) were hospital acquired. Up to 96% of these AKI events were not diagnosed on the discharge records. The cumulative incidence of AKI in infants (28%) was twice that in adolescents (12%). The profiles of risk factors differed between community-acquired and hospital-acquired AKI and varied with age. Diarrhea and sepsis were the top risk factors for community-acquired AKI, each contributing 6% of the risk. Congenital heart disease/cardiac surgery was the major risk factor for hospital-acquired AKI, contributing to 19% of cases. Exposure to nephrotoxic drugs, mostly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton pump inhibitors, was common in hospitalized children and was associated with a higher risk of AKI. Death occurred in 842 out of 19,908 patients (4%) with AKI versus 450 out of 81,478 children (0.5%) without AKI. The risk of in-hospital death was higher among children with severe AKI, shock, and respiratory failure. Pediatric AKI was associated with longer hospital stay and higher daily cost, even after adjustment for covariates.
Pediatric AKI is common and is substantially underdiagnosed in China.