Brimonidine displays anti-inflammatory properties in the skin through the modulation of the vascular barrier function.Exp Dermatol. 2018 12; 27(12):1378-1387.ED
Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Characteristic vascular changes in rosacea skin include enlarged, dilated vessels of the upper dermis and blood flow increase. Brimonidine is approved for symptomatic relief of the erythema of rosacea. It acts by selectively binding to α2-adrenergic receptors present on smooth muscle in the peripheral vasculature, resulting in transient local vasoconstriction.
To provide further evidence of the anti-inflammatory potential of brimonidine across preclinical models of skin inflammation and its ability to decrease the neutrophil infiltration in human skin after ultraviolet light exposure.
The anti-inflammatory properties of brimonidine through modulation of the vascular barrier function were assessed using in vivo neurogenic vasodilation and acute inflammatory models and a well-described in vitro transmigration assay. A clinical study assessed the neutrophil infiltration in human skin after exposure to UV in 37 healthy Caucasian male subjects.
In vitro, brimonidine affects the transmigration of human neutrophils through the endothelial barrier by modulating adhesion molecules. In vivo, in the mouse, topical treatment with brimonidine, used at a vasoconstrictive dose, confirmed its anti-inflammatory properties and prevented leucocyte recruitment (rolling and adhesion) mediated by endothelial cells. Topical pretreatment with brimonidine tartrate 0.33% gel once a day for 4 days significantly prevented neutrophil infiltration by 53.9% in human skin after exposure to UV light.
Results from in vitro, in vivo and from a clinical study indicate that brimonidine impacts acute inflammation of the skin by interfering with neurogenic activation and/or recruitment of neutrophils.