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Remote Viewing of Concealed Target Pictures Under Light and Dark Conditions.
Explore (NY) 2019 Jan - Feb; 15(1):27-37E

Abstract

CONTEXT

The belief that performing a nonlocal task in darkness plays a facilitating role in remote viewing and other psi-related phenomena is well established in esoteric and traditional beliefs (Grim, 1983; Hallowell, 1942; Lyon, 2012). However, the role of darkness in RV success is unclear beyond these esoteric explanations.

OBJECTIVE

This study explored the differential effect of darkness/light on remote viewing ability alongside the effect of time and their potential interaction.

DESIGN

From an initial sample of twenty, seven remote viewers contributed a total of nineteen sessions each (nine light/ten dark) which utilised randomized target selection, free-response descriptions, and ratings by both participants and an independent judge.

RESULTS

The usable data gave the edge to dark condition performance; the difference was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference between remote viewer and independent judge raw scores attributed to the target image was identified (t (132) = 4.56, p <.001 (two-tailed) Mdiff = 14.21 [8.05, 20.4]) with a medium effect size (d = 0.40 [0.21, 0.57]). Exploratory post-hoc analyses concerning the numinosity of target images were conducted, to determine if this characteristic was associated with success. For numinosity ratings of target images, a mean difference of 11.24, 95% CI [0.12, 22.3] was shown as significant, with the target images of participant 'hit' sessions containing higher numinosity ratings than unsuccessful 'miss' sessions (t (11.47) = 2.22, p (two-tailed) = .048) with a large effect size (d = 1.02, [0.01, 1.99]).

CONCLUSION

The findings may have implications for the use of participant judgments in future remote viewing research. Furthermore, because there are several advantages to what parapsychologists refer to as "free response" targets as opposed to "forced choice" targets (Honorton, 1975), the findings for target numinosity may have implications for the future selection of target material.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Humanistic and Clinical Psychology, Saybrook University, 475 14th St, Oakland, California, USA.Psychology Division, Faculty of Health and Society, The University of Northampton, Park Campus, Fawsley Building, Northamptonshire, Northampton NN2 7AL, England, UK. Electronic address: david.saunders@northampton.ac.uk.Sofia University, 1069 East Meadow Circle Palo Alto, California, USA.California State University, Northridge, California, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30291000

Citation

Krippner, Stanley, et al. "Remote Viewing of Concealed Target Pictures Under Light and Dark Conditions." Explore (New York, N.Y.), vol. 15, no. 1, 2019, pp. 27-37.
Krippner S, Saunders DT, Morgan A, et al. Remote Viewing of Concealed Target Pictures Under Light and Dark Conditions. Explore (NY). 2019;15(1):27-37.
Krippner, S., Saunders, D. T., Morgan, A., & Quan, A. (2019). Remote Viewing of Concealed Target Pictures Under Light and Dark Conditions. Explore (New York, N.Y.), 15(1), pp. 27-37. doi:10.1016/j.explore.2018.07.001.
Krippner S, et al. Remote Viewing of Concealed Target Pictures Under Light and Dark Conditions. Explore (NY). 2019;15(1):27-37. PubMed PMID: 30291000.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Remote Viewing of Concealed Target Pictures Under Light and Dark Conditions. AU - Krippner,Stanley, AU - Saunders,David T, AU - Morgan,Angel, AU - Quan,Alan, Y1 - 2018/08/22/ PY - 2018/02/26/received PY - 2018/06/20/revised PY - 2018/07/10/accepted PY - 2018/10/7/pubmed PY - 2019/5/21/medline PY - 2018/10/7/entrez KW - Dark KW - Free-response KW - Light KW - Numinosity KW - RV KW - Remote viewing KW - Target numinosity SP - 27 EP - 37 JF - Explore (New York, N.Y.) JO - Explore (NY) VL - 15 IS - 1 N2 - CONTEXT: The belief that performing a nonlocal task in darkness plays a facilitating role in remote viewing and other psi-related phenomena is well established in esoteric and traditional beliefs (Grim, 1983; Hallowell, 1942; Lyon, 2012). However, the role of darkness in RV success is unclear beyond these esoteric explanations. OBJECTIVE: This study explored the differential effect of darkness/light on remote viewing ability alongside the effect of time and their potential interaction. DESIGN: From an initial sample of twenty, seven remote viewers contributed a total of nineteen sessions each (nine light/ten dark) which utilised randomized target selection, free-response descriptions, and ratings by both participants and an independent judge. RESULTS: The usable data gave the edge to dark condition performance; the difference was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference between remote viewer and independent judge raw scores attributed to the target image was identified (t (132) = 4.56, p <.001 (two-tailed) Mdiff = 14.21 [8.05, 20.4]) with a medium effect size (d = 0.40 [0.21, 0.57]). Exploratory post-hoc analyses concerning the numinosity of target images were conducted, to determine if this characteristic was associated with success. For numinosity ratings of target images, a mean difference of 11.24, 95% CI [0.12, 22.3] was shown as significant, with the target images of participant 'hit' sessions containing higher numinosity ratings than unsuccessful 'miss' sessions (t (11.47) = 2.22, p (two-tailed) = .048) with a large effect size (d = 1.02, [0.01, 1.99]). CONCLUSION: The findings may have implications for the use of participant judgments in future remote viewing research. Furthermore, because there are several advantages to what parapsychologists refer to as "free response" targets as opposed to "forced choice" targets (Honorton, 1975), the findings for target numinosity may have implications for the future selection of target material. SN - 1878-7541 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30291000/Remote_Viewing_of_Concealed_Target_Pictures_Under_Light_and_Dark_Conditions L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1550-8307(18)30068-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -