Urine collection methods for non-toilet-trained children in biological monitoring studies: Validation of a disposable diaper for characterization of tebuconazole exposure.Toxicol Lett. 2018 Dec 01; 298:201-206.TL
Young children differ from adults in their exposure and susceptibility to environmental chemicals (e.g. pesticides) because of various factors such as behavior, diet and physiology. Their heightened vulnerability to environmental stressors makes it important to obtain appropriate urine samples for exposure characterization. However, collecting urine from non-toilet-trained children has been shown to be methodologically and practically challenging. Four urine collection approaches were tested: a disposable diaper, a urine bag, a collection pad and the clean catch. The success rate and the user rating of each method was evaluated. The success rates were 67%, 21%, 17% and 4% for the disposable diaper, urine bag, collection pad and clean catch, respectively. The average user ratings on a 0-10 (0 = inconvenient, 10 = convenient) scale were 9.0, 4.7, 7.3 and 2.5, respectively. Subsequently, the best rated method, the disposable polyacrylate diaper was tested with hydroxy-tebuconazole as an exposure biomarker for the fungicide tebuconazole and creatinine for urine density adjustment. After LC-MS/MS analysis, the recoveries of hydroxy-tebuconazole in the range of 0.05-25 ng/mL were on average 106%, and for creatinine 87%. Precisions (relative standard deviation) were for both 3%. The overall procedure including collection and extraction was assessed, resulting in three out of seven positive samples. Based on this study, the disposable diaper is a suitable method for urine collection of non-toilet-trained children for biomonitoring of tebuconazole. This method can serve as a basis for extension to other substances of interest.