Comparison of Clinical Outcomes of Prostatic Artery Embolization with 50-μm Plus 100-μm Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) Particles versus 100-μm PVA Particles Alone: A Prospective Randomized Trial.J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2018 12; 29(12):1694-1702.JV
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) using the combination of 50-μm and 100-μm polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) particles versus 100-μm PVA particles alone in the treatment of patients with symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Over a 5-year period, 120 patients treated with PAE for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to BPH were randomized to undergo embolization with 50-μm plus 100-μm PVA particles (group A) or 100-μm PVA particles alone (group B). Mean follow-up time was 34 months (range, 12-57 mo). There were no differences between groups regarding baseline data. Primary outcome measurements included change in International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and incidence of adverse events. Secondary outcome measurements included procedure-associated pain, prostate ischemia measured on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging 1 week after PAE, and changes over time in quality of life (QOL) questionnaire, peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual (PVR) volume, prostate volume (PV), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) were evaluated. Recurrence of LUTS following PAE was defined as relief of LUTS temporally but increased IPSS ≥ 8 or QOL score ≥ 3 or decrease in Qmax to < 7 mL/s.
Mean follow-up periods were 35 months ± 22 in group A and 33 months ± 25 in group B (P = .629). No differences between groups regarding procedural details, pain scores, or adverse events were noted (P > .05). At 24 month of follow-up, patients in group A had a greater decrease in mean IPSS (18.7 ± 12.5 vs 14.8 ± 13.5), QOL score (3.7 ± 1.5 vs 2.4 ± 1.8), Qmax (10.5 mL ± 9.5 vs 6.8 mL ± 5.0), PVR (92.0 mL ± 75.0 vs 60.0 mL ± 55.0), and PV (37.0 mL ± 19.5 vs 25.5 mL ± 15.0) compared with patients in group B (P < .05 for all). Mean ratios of prostate ischemic volume at 1 week after PAE were 70% ± 20 in group A and 41% ± 25 in group B (P = .021); mean PSA levels at 24 hour after PAE were 92.5 ng/mL ± 55.0 in group A and 77.5 ng/mL ± 45.0 in group B (P = .031); LUTS recurrence rates were 3.6% in group A and 14.6% in group B (P = .024). The mean IIEF-5 was not significantly different from baseline in either group.
PAE with 50-μm plus 100-μm PVA particles resulted in greater improvement in clinical and imaging outcomes and no significant differences in adverse events compared with 100-μm PVA particles alone.