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Detection of adulterated drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and dietary supplements using hydrogen as a carrier gas.

Abstract

Helium, a minor component of natural gas and radioactive minerals, is most commonly used as a carrier in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Its scarcity leads to limited availability and higher costs. In this experiment, hydrogen from a safe source of a hydrogen generator was tested as a substitutive carrier gas for the detection of adulterant in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and food supplements by GC-MS analysis. We found that the limits of detection (LODs) of using hydrogen were from 10 to 1000 μg/g. The levels of LODs tested among 170 drugs remain the same whether hydrogen or helium was used as a carrier gas with the exception of 7 drugs-benzbromarone, estradiol benzoate, bezafibrate, mefenamic acid, oxymetholone, piperidenafil and cetilistat. The real sample analysis results using hydrogen were as satisfactory as those using helium. In addition, the retention time was shortened after the chromatographic performance was optimized. In summary, it is worth considering hydrogen as a carrier gas due to its affordable costs, energy efficiency, carbon reduction and chromatographic advantages to detect adulterated drugs in TCM and dietary supplement using GC-MS.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Public Health Bureau, Tainan City Government, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

    ,

    Public Health Bureau, Tainan City Government, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

    ,

    Public Health Bureau, Tainan City Government, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

    ,

    Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.

    Public Health Bureau, Tainan City Government, Tainan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

    Source

    PloS one 13:10 2018 pg e0205371

    MeSH

    Chlorzoxazone
    Dietary Supplements
    Drug Contamination
    Drugs, Chinese Herbal
    Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
    Helium
    Humans
    Hydrogen
    Limit of Detection
    Oxymetholone
    Pyrimidinones
    Sildenafil Citrate
    Sulfones

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    30304050

    Citation

    Lin, Yen-Ping, et al. "Detection of Adulterated Drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Dietary Supplements Using Hydrogen as a Carrier Gas." PloS One, vol. 13, no. 10, 2018, pp. e0205371.
    Lin YP, Lee YL, Hung CY, et al. Detection of adulterated drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and dietary supplements using hydrogen as a carrier gas. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(10):e0205371.
    Lin, Y. P., Lee, Y. L., Hung, C. Y., Chang, C. F., & Chen, Y. (2018). Detection of adulterated drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and dietary supplements using hydrogen as a carrier gas. PloS One, 13(10), pp. e0205371. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205371.
    Lin YP, et al. Detection of Adulterated Drugs in Traditional Chinese Medicine and Dietary Supplements Using Hydrogen as a Carrier Gas. PLoS ONE. 2018;13(10):e0205371. PubMed PMID: 30304050.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Detection of adulterated drugs in traditional Chinese medicine and dietary supplements using hydrogen as a carrier gas. AU - Lin,Yen-Ping, AU - Lee,Ying-Lin, AU - Hung,Chien-Ya, AU - Chang,Chuan-Fa, AU - Chen,Yi, Y1 - 2018/10/10/ PY - 2018/05/04/received PY - 2018/09/23/accepted PY - 2018/10/11/entrez PY - 2018/10/12/pubmed PY - 2019/4/26/medline SP - e0205371 EP - e0205371 JF - PloS one JO - PLoS ONE VL - 13 IS - 10 N2 - Helium, a minor component of natural gas and radioactive minerals, is most commonly used as a carrier in gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Its scarcity leads to limited availability and higher costs. In this experiment, hydrogen from a safe source of a hydrogen generator was tested as a substitutive carrier gas for the detection of adulterant in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and food supplements by GC-MS analysis. We found that the limits of detection (LODs) of using hydrogen were from 10 to 1000 μg/g. The levels of LODs tested among 170 drugs remain the same whether hydrogen or helium was used as a carrier gas with the exception of 7 drugs-benzbromarone, estradiol benzoate, bezafibrate, mefenamic acid, oxymetholone, piperidenafil and cetilistat. The real sample analysis results using hydrogen were as satisfactory as those using helium. In addition, the retention time was shortened after the chromatographic performance was optimized. In summary, it is worth considering hydrogen as a carrier gas due to its affordable costs, energy efficiency, carbon reduction and chromatographic advantages to detect adulterated drugs in TCM and dietary supplement using GC-MS. SN - 1932-6203 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30304050/Detection_of_adulterated_drugs_in_traditional_Chinese_medicine_and_dietary_supplements_using_hydrogen_as_a_carrier_gas L2 - http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0205371 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -