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Explaining the ocean's richest biodiversity hotspot and global patterns of fish diversity.
Proc Biol Sci. 2018 10 10; 285(1888)PB

Abstract

For most marine organisms, species richness peaks in the Central Indo-Pacific region and declines longitudinally, a striking pattern that remains poorly understood. Here, we used phylogenetic approaches to address the causes of richness patterns among global marine regions, comparing the relative importance of colonization time, number of colonization events, and diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). We estimated regional richness using distributional data for almost all percomorph fishes (17 435 species total, including approximately 72% of all marine fishes and approximately 33% of all freshwater fishes). The high diversity of the Central Indo-Pacific was explained by its colonization by many lineages 5.3-34 million years ago. These relatively old colonizations allowed more time for richness to build up through in situ diversification compared to other warm-marine regions. Surprisingly, diversification rates were decoupled from marine richness patterns, with clades in low-richness cold-marine habitats having the highest rates. Unlike marine richness, freshwater diversity was largely derived from a few ancient colonizations, coupled with high diversification rates. Our results are congruent with the geological history of the marine tropics, and thus may apply to many other organisms. Beyond marine biogeography, we add to the growing number of cases where colonization and time-for-speciation explain large-scale richness patterns instead of diversification rates.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088, USA ecmiller@email.arizona.edu.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088, USA. Division of Biology and Medicine, Program in Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088, USA. Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438, China. Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02115, USA.Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0088, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30305433

Citation

Miller, Elizabeth Christina, et al. "Explaining the Ocean's Richest Biodiversity Hotspot and Global Patterns of Fish Diversity." Proceedings. Biological Sciences, vol. 285, no. 1888, 2018.
Miller EC, Hayashi KT, Song D, et al. Explaining the ocean's richest biodiversity hotspot and global patterns of fish diversity. Proc Biol Sci. 2018;285(1888).
Miller, E. C., Hayashi, K. T., Song, D., & Wiens, J. J. (2018). Explaining the ocean's richest biodiversity hotspot and global patterns of fish diversity. Proceedings. Biological Sciences, 285(1888). https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2018.1314
Miller EC, et al. Explaining the Ocean's Richest Biodiversity Hotspot and Global Patterns of Fish Diversity. Proc Biol Sci. 2018 10 10;285(1888) PubMed PMID: 30305433.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Explaining the ocean's richest biodiversity hotspot and global patterns of fish diversity. AU - Miller,Elizabeth Christina, AU - Hayashi,Kenji T, AU - Song,Dongyuan, AU - Wiens,John J, Y1 - 2018/10/10/ PY - 2018/06/13/received PY - 2018/09/07/accepted PY - 2018/10/12/entrez PY - 2018/10/12/pubmed PY - 2019/8/15/medline KW - diversification KW - fish KW - freshwater KW - historical biogeography KW - marine biodiversity KW - time-for-speciation JF - Proceedings. Biological sciences JO - Proc Biol Sci VL - 285 IS - 1888 N2 - For most marine organisms, species richness peaks in the Central Indo-Pacific region and declines longitudinally, a striking pattern that remains poorly understood. Here, we used phylogenetic approaches to address the causes of richness patterns among global marine regions, comparing the relative importance of colonization time, number of colonization events, and diversification rates (speciation minus extinction). We estimated regional richness using distributional data for almost all percomorph fishes (17 435 species total, including approximately 72% of all marine fishes and approximately 33% of all freshwater fishes). The high diversity of the Central Indo-Pacific was explained by its colonization by many lineages 5.3-34 million years ago. These relatively old colonizations allowed more time for richness to build up through in situ diversification compared to other warm-marine regions. Surprisingly, diversification rates were decoupled from marine richness patterns, with clades in low-richness cold-marine habitats having the highest rates. Unlike marine richness, freshwater diversity was largely derived from a few ancient colonizations, coupled with high diversification rates. Our results are congruent with the geological history of the marine tropics, and thus may apply to many other organisms. Beyond marine biogeography, we add to the growing number of cases where colonization and time-for-speciation explain large-scale richness patterns instead of diversification rates. SN - 1471-2954 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30305433/Explaining_the_ocean's_richest_biodiversity_hotspot_and_global_patterns_of_fish_diversity_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2018.1314?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -