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Cranial Pair II: The Optic Nerves.
Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2019 03; 302(3):428-445.AR

Abstract

The optic nerves (ONs), one of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves (Pair II), together with the olfactory and the cochlear nerves, are devoted to transmit sensory inputs. In particular, ONs convey visual information from the retina to the brain. In mammals, the ONs are bilateral structures that extend from the optic disc to the optic chiasm containing glial cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons. RGCs are the only retinal neurons able to collect visual information and transmit it to the visual centers in the brain for its processing and integration with the rest of sensory inputs. During embryonic development, RGCs born in the retina extend their axons to exit the eye and follow a stereotypic path outlined by the transient expression of a wide set of guidance molecules. As the rest of central nervous system structures, the ONs are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes and wrapped by the meninges. ON injuries or RGCs degenerative conditions may provoke partial or complete blindness because they are incapable of spontaneous regeneration. Here, we first review major advances on the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the formation of the ONs in mammals. Then, we discuss some of the human disorders and pathologies affecting the development and function of the ONs and finally we comment on the existing view about ON regeneration possibilities. Anat Rec, 302:428-445, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Miguel Hernández, CSIC-UMH), Av. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, s/n., 03550, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Alicante, Spain.Departamento de Oftalmología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Murcia, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria-Virgen de la Arrixaca (IMIB-Arrixaca), Murcia, Spain.Instituto de Neurociencias de Alicante (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas-Universidad Miguel Hernández, CSIC-UMH), Av. Santiago Ramón y Cajal, s/n., 03550, Sant Joan d'Alacant, Alicante, Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30306726

Citation

Herrera, Eloísa, et al. "Cranial Pair II: the Optic Nerves." Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007), vol. 302, no. 3, 2019, pp. 428-445.
Herrera E, Agudo-Barriuso M, Murcia-Belmonte V. Cranial Pair II: The Optic Nerves. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2019;302(3):428-445.
Herrera, E., Agudo-Barriuso, M., & Murcia-Belmonte, V. (2019). Cranial Pair II: The Optic Nerves. Anatomical Record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007), 302(3), 428-445. https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23922
Herrera E, Agudo-Barriuso M, Murcia-Belmonte V. Cranial Pair II: the Optic Nerves. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2019;302(3):428-445. PubMed PMID: 30306726.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cranial Pair II: The Optic Nerves. AU - Herrera,Eloísa, AU - Agudo-Barriuso,Marta, AU - Murcia-Belmonte,Verónica, Y1 - 2018/10/10/ PY - 2017/02/07/received PY - 2017/04/19/revised PY - 2017/05/14/accepted PY - 2018/10/12/pubmed PY - 2020/5/13/medline PY - 2018/10/12/entrez KW - ON pathologies KW - axonal degeneration KW - axonal growth KW - axonal regeneration KW - optic nerve development KW - retinal ganglion cells SP - 428 EP - 445 JF - Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007) JO - Anat Rec (Hoboken) VL - 302 IS - 3 N2 - The optic nerves (ONs), one of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves (Pair II), together with the olfactory and the cochlear nerves, are devoted to transmit sensory inputs. In particular, ONs convey visual information from the retina to the brain. In mammals, the ONs are bilateral structures that extend from the optic disc to the optic chiasm containing glial cells and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axons. RGCs are the only retinal neurons able to collect visual information and transmit it to the visual centers in the brain for its processing and integration with the rest of sensory inputs. During embryonic development, RGCs born in the retina extend their axons to exit the eye and follow a stereotypic path outlined by the transient expression of a wide set of guidance molecules. As the rest of central nervous system structures, the ONs are covered with myelin produced by oligodendrocytes and wrapped by the meninges. ON injuries or RGCs degenerative conditions may provoke partial or complete blindness because they are incapable of spontaneous regeneration. Here, we first review major advances on the current knowledge about the mechanisms underlying the formation of the ONs in mammals. Then, we discuss some of the human disorders and pathologies affecting the development and function of the ONs and finally we comment on the existing view about ON regeneration possibilities. Anat Rec, 302:428-445, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. SN - 1932-8494 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30306726/Cranial_Pair_II:_The_Optic_Nerves_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/ar.23922 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -