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Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Iranian Children: A Case-Control Study.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2019 01; 38(1):76-83.JA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

Associations between nutritional/dietary factors and mental disorders have been suggested. This study was conducted to assess the relation of major dietary patterns determined by factor analysis with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian preschool- and school-aged children.

METHODS

This case-control study was conducted with 500 preschool- and school-aged children (4-12 years old) matched by age and sex, in Isfahan, Iran. Dietary intake was identified by a 168-item questionnaire, and major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The multivariable logistic regression is used for the association of dietary patterns with the diagnosis of ADHD. ADHD diagnosis was carried out with the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition.

RESULTS

Two major dietary patterns were identified: healthy and Western. The healthy dietary pattern was rich in fruits, vegetables, vegetable oils, whole grains, legumes, and dairy products. The Western pattern was rich in processed meat, red meat, pizza, eggs, snacks, animal fat, hydrogenated fat, and salt. After controlling for potential confounders, children in the top quintile of the Western dietary pattern score had greater odds having ADHD, compared with those in the lowest quintile (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-18.3; ptrend = 0.03). The healthy pattern was inversely associated with ADHD (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.38-0.91; ptrend = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

A significant independent association was found between the Western dietary pattern and the odds of ADHD. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds of having ADHD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.

Authors+Show Affiliations

a Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Science , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.a Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Science , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.a Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition & Food Science , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.b Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases Research Center , Guilan University of Medical Sciences , Rasht , Iran.c Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health , Isfahan University of Medical Sciences , Isfahan , Iran.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30307794

Citation

Abbasi, Khadijeh, et al. "Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Iranian Children: a Case-Control Study." Journal of the American College of Nutrition, vol. 38, no. 1, 2019, pp. 76-83.
Abbasi K, Beigrezai S, Ghiasvand R, et al. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Iranian Children: A Case-Control Study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019;38(1):76-83.
Abbasi, K., Beigrezai, S., Ghiasvand, R., Pourmasoumi, M., & Mahaki, B. (2019). Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Iranian Children: A Case-Control Study. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 38(1), 76-83. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2018.1473819
Abbasi K, et al. Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Iranian Children: a Case-Control Study. J Am Coll Nutr. 2019;38(1):76-83. PubMed PMID: 30307794.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Dietary Patterns and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Iranian Children: A Case-Control Study. AU - Abbasi,Khadijeh, AU - Beigrezai,Sara, AU - Ghiasvand,Reza, AU - Pourmasoumi,Makan, AU - Mahaki,Behzad, Y1 - 2018/10/11/ PY - 2018/10/12/pubmed PY - 2020/4/2/medline PY - 2018/10/12/entrez KW - Dietary patterns KW - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder KW - case-control KW - school-aged children SP - 76 EP - 83 JF - Journal of the American College of Nutrition JO - J Am Coll Nutr VL - 38 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: Associations between nutritional/dietary factors and mental disorders have been suggested. This study was conducted to assess the relation of major dietary patterns determined by factor analysis with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a group of Iranian preschool- and school-aged children. METHODS: This case-control study was conducted with 500 preschool- and school-aged children (4-12 years old) matched by age and sex, in Isfahan, Iran. Dietary intake was identified by a 168-item questionnaire, and major dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. The multivariable logistic regression is used for the association of dietary patterns with the diagnosis of ADHD. ADHD diagnosis was carried out with the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. RESULTS: Two major dietary patterns were identified: healthy and Western. The healthy dietary pattern was rich in fruits, vegetables, vegetable oils, whole grains, legumes, and dairy products. The Western pattern was rich in processed meat, red meat, pizza, eggs, snacks, animal fat, hydrogenated fat, and salt. After controlling for potential confounders, children in the top quintile of the Western dietary pattern score had greater odds having ADHD, compared with those in the lowest quintile (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-18.3; ptrend = 0.03). The healthy pattern was inversely associated with ADHD (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.38-0.91; ptrend = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: A significant independent association was found between the Western dietary pattern and the odds of ADHD. The healthy dietary pattern was associated with lower odds of having ADHD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings. SN - 1541-1087 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30307794/Dietary_Patterns_and_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_Disorder_Among_Iranian_Children:_A_Case_Control_Study_ L2 - https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/07315724.2018.1473819 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -