Immune-mediated neuropathies.Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018 10 11; 4(1):31.NR
Since the discovery of an acute monophasic paralysis, later coined Guillain-Barré syndrome, almost 100 years ago, and the discovery of chronic, steroid-responsive polyneuropathy 50 years ago, the spectrum of immune-mediated polyneuropathies has broadened, with various subtypes continuing to be identified, including chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). In general, these disorders are speculated to be caused by autoimmunity to proteins located at the node of Ranvier or components of myelin of peripheral nerves, although disease-associated autoantibodies have not been identified for all disorders. Owing to the numerous subtypes of the immune-mediated neuropathies, making the right diagnosis in daily clinical practice is complicated. Moreover, treating these disorders, particularly their chronic variants, such as CIDP and MMN, poses a challenge. In general, management of these disorders includes immunotherapies, such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin or plasma exchange. Improvements in clinical criteria and the emergence of more disease-specific immunotherapies should broaden the therapeutic options for these disabling diseases.