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Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age.

Abstract

Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age. Questionnaire data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were collected to assess the prevalence of under- and over-nutrition, anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia, in both groups. In children only, vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency were also assessed. In women only, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and vitamin A insufficiency were assessed. In total, 3926 household interviews were successfully completed with a response rate of 80.6%. In the 1455 children, infant and young child feeding practices were relatively poor overall; the prevalence of wasting and stunting were 3.1% and 18.0%, respectively; and 14.1% of children were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anemia was 24.2% in 6⁻59 months old children, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 15.0% in this age group, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6.5%. Vitamin A deficiency was found in 8.0% of children, and zinc deficiency was found in 10.7%. Data from 3089 non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age showed that while undernutrition was scarce, 53% were overweight or obese, with increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anemia affected 38.2% of the women, iron deficiency 34.1% and iron deficiency anemia 23.8%. Vitamin A insufficiency was found in 10.5% of women. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency were somewhat more common, with prevalence rates of 35.0% and 19.7%, respectively. The main risk factors for anemia in children were recent lower respiratory infection, inflammation and iron deficiency. In women, the main risk factors for anemia were iron deficiency and vitamin A insufficiency. Anemia is a public health problem in Azerbaijani children and women, and additional efforts are needed to reduce anemia in both groups.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. james@groundworkhealth.org.

    ,

    UNICEF, 1095 Baku, Azerbaijan. trajabov@unicef.org.

    ,

    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. nico@groundworkhealth.org.

    ,

    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. woody@groundworkhealth.org.

    ,

    UNICEF, 1095 Baku, Azerbaijan. nbshafique@unicef.org.

    ,

    UNICEF, 1095 Baku, Azerbaijan. rmustafa@unicef.org.

    ,

    UNICEF Regional Office for Middle East and North Africa, Amman 11821, Jordan. vtyler@unicef.org.

    GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. fabian@groundworkhealth.org.

    Source

    Nutrients 10:10 2018 Oct 11 pg

    MeSH

    Adolescent
    Adult
    Anemia
    Anemia, Iron-Deficiency
    Azerbaijan
    Child, Preschool
    Female
    Folic Acid
    Folic Acid Deficiency
    Humans
    Infant
    Infant, Newborn
    Iron
    Male
    Malnutrition
    Micronutrients
    Middle Aged
    Nutritional Status
    Overnutrition
    Prevalence
    Risk Factors
    Vitamin A Deficiency
    Vitamin B 12 Deficiency
    Young Adult
    Zinc

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    30314363

    Citation

    Wirth, James P., et al. "Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age." Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 10, 2018.
    Wirth JP, Rajabov T, Petry N, et al. Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients. 2018;10(10).
    Wirth, J. P., Rajabov, T., Petry, N., Woodruff, B. A., Shafique, N. B., Mustafa, R., ... Rohner, F. (2018). Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients, 10(10), doi:10.3390/nu10101483.
    Wirth JP, et al. Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 11;10(10) PubMed PMID: 30314363.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. AU - Wirth,James P, AU - Rajabov,Tamerlan, AU - Petry,Nicolai, AU - Woodruff,Bradley A, AU - Shafique,Nafisa Binte, AU - Mustafa,Rashed, AU - Tyler,Vilma Qahoush, AU - Rohner,Fabian, Y1 - 2018/10/11/ PY - 2018/09/03/received PY - 2018/09/29/revised PY - 2018/10/02/accepted PY - 2018/10/14/entrez PY - 2018/10/14/pubmed PY - 2019/1/23/medline KW - Azerbaijan KW - anemia determinants KW - iron deficiency KW - micronutrients KW - overnutrition KW - undernutrition JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 10 IS - 10 N2 - Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age. Questionnaire data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were collected to assess the prevalence of under- and over-nutrition, anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia, in both groups. In children only, vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency were also assessed. In women only, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and vitamin A insufficiency were assessed. In total, 3926 household interviews were successfully completed with a response rate of 80.6%. In the 1455 children, infant and young child feeding practices were relatively poor overall; the prevalence of wasting and stunting were 3.1% and 18.0%, respectively; and 14.1% of children were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anemia was 24.2% in 6⁻59 months old children, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 15.0% in this age group, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6.5%. Vitamin A deficiency was found in 8.0% of children, and zinc deficiency was found in 10.7%. Data from 3089 non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age showed that while undernutrition was scarce, 53% were overweight or obese, with increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anemia affected 38.2% of the women, iron deficiency 34.1% and iron deficiency anemia 23.8%. Vitamin A insufficiency was found in 10.5% of women. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency were somewhat more common, with prevalence rates of 35.0% and 19.7%, respectively. The main risk factors for anemia in children were recent lower respiratory infection, inflammation and iron deficiency. In women, the main risk factors for anemia were iron deficiency and vitamin A insufficiency. Anemia is a public health problem in Azerbaijani children and women, and additional efforts are needed to reduce anemia in both groups. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30314363/Micronutrient_Deficiencies_Over__and_Undernutrition_and_Their_Contribution_to_Anemia_in_Azerbaijani_Preschool_Children_and_Non_Pregnant_Women_of_Reproductive_Age_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu10101483 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -