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Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age.
Nutrients 2018; 10(10)N

Abstract

Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age. Questionnaire data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were collected to assess the prevalence of under- and over-nutrition, anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia, in both groups. In children only, vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency were also assessed. In women only, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and vitamin A insufficiency were assessed. In total, 3926 household interviews were successfully completed with a response rate of 80.6%. In the 1455 children, infant and young child feeding practices were relatively poor overall; the prevalence of wasting and stunting were 3.1% and 18.0%, respectively; and 14.1% of children were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anemia was 24.2% in 6⁻59 months old children, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 15.0% in this age group, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6.5%. Vitamin A deficiency was found in 8.0% of children, and zinc deficiency was found in 10.7%. Data from 3089 non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age showed that while undernutrition was scarce, 53% were overweight or obese, with increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anemia affected 38.2% of the women, iron deficiency 34.1% and iron deficiency anemia 23.8%. Vitamin A insufficiency was found in 10.5% of women. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency were somewhat more common, with prevalence rates of 35.0% and 19.7%, respectively. The main risk factors for anemia in children were recent lower respiratory infection, inflammation and iron deficiency. In women, the main risk factors for anemia were iron deficiency and vitamin A insufficiency. Anemia is a public health problem in Azerbaijani children and women, and additional efforts are needed to reduce anemia in both groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. james@groundworkhealth.org.UNICEF, 1095 Baku, Azerbaijan. trajabov@unicef.org.GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. nico@groundworkhealth.org.GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. woody@groundworkhealth.org.UNICEF, 1095 Baku, Azerbaijan. nbshafique@unicef.org.UNICEF, 1095 Baku, Azerbaijan. rmustafa@unicef.org.UNICEF Regional Office for Middle East and North Africa, Amman 11821, Jordan. vtyler@unicef.org.GroundWork, 7306 Fläsch, Switzerland. fabian@groundworkhealth.org.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30314363

Citation

Wirth, James P., et al. "Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age." Nutrients, vol. 10, no. 10, 2018.
Wirth JP, Rajabov T, Petry N, et al. Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients. 2018;10(10).
Wirth, J. P., Rajabov, T., Petry, N., Woodruff, B. A., Shafique, N. B., Mustafa, R., ... Rohner, F. (2018). Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients, 10(10), doi:10.3390/nu10101483.
Wirth JP, et al. Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. Nutrients. 2018 Oct 11;10(10) PubMed PMID: 30314363.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Micronutrient Deficiencies, Over- and Undernutrition, and Their Contribution to Anemia in Azerbaijani Preschool Children and Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age. AU - Wirth,James P, AU - Rajabov,Tamerlan, AU - Petry,Nicolai, AU - Woodruff,Bradley A, AU - Shafique,Nafisa Binte, AU - Mustafa,Rashed, AU - Tyler,Vilma Qahoush, AU - Rohner,Fabian, Y1 - 2018/10/11/ PY - 2018/09/03/received PY - 2018/09/29/revised PY - 2018/10/02/accepted PY - 2018/10/14/entrez PY - 2018/10/14/pubmed PY - 2019/1/23/medline KW - Azerbaijan KW - anemia determinants KW - iron deficiency KW - micronutrients KW - overnutrition KW - undernutrition JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 10 IS - 10 N2 - Data on the nutritional situation and prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies in Azerbaijan are scarce, and knowledge about anemia risk factors is needed for national and regional policymakers. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of micronutrient deficiencies, over- and undernutrition, and to disentangle determinants of anemia in children and women in Azerbaijan. The survey generated estimates of micronutrient deficiency and growth indicators for children aged 0⁻59 months of age (6⁻59 months for blood biomarkers) and non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age. Questionnaire data, anthropometric measurements, and blood samples were collected to assess the prevalence of under- and over-nutrition, anemia, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia, in both groups. In children only, vitamin A deficiency and zinc deficiency were also assessed. In women only, folate and vitamin B12 deficiencies and vitamin A insufficiency were assessed. In total, 3926 household interviews were successfully completed with a response rate of 80.6%. In the 1455 children, infant and young child feeding practices were relatively poor overall; the prevalence of wasting and stunting were 3.1% and 18.0%, respectively; and 14.1% of children were overweight or obese. The prevalence of anemia was 24.2% in 6⁻59 months old children, the prevalence of iron deficiency was 15.0% in this age group, and the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia was 6.5%. Vitamin A deficiency was found in 8.0% of children, and zinc deficiency was found in 10.7%. Data from 3089 non-pregnant women 15⁻49 years of age showed that while undernutrition was scarce, 53% were overweight or obese, with increasing prevalence with increasing age. Anemia affected 38.2% of the women, iron deficiency 34.1% and iron deficiency anemia 23.8%. Vitamin A insufficiency was found in 10.5% of women. Folate and vitamin B12 deficiency were somewhat more common, with prevalence rates of 35.0% and 19.7%, respectively. The main risk factors for anemia in children were recent lower respiratory infection, inflammation and iron deficiency. In women, the main risk factors for anemia were iron deficiency and vitamin A insufficiency. Anemia is a public health problem in Azerbaijani children and women, and additional efforts are needed to reduce anemia in both groups. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30314363/Micronutrient_Deficiencies_Over__and_Undernutrition_and_Their_Contribution_to_Anemia_in_Azerbaijani_Preschool_Children_and_Non_Pregnant_Women_of_Reproductive_Age_ L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu10101483 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -