The role of Cutibacterium acnes in auto-inflammatory bone disorders.Eur J Pediatr 2019; 178(1):89-95EJ
Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) and SAPHO (synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis and osteitis) syndrome are auto-inflammatory disorders manifesting as chronic inflammation of bones and joints, which in SAPHO is often accompanying by skin changes. The aetiology of these diseases is unknown, but includes genetic, infectious and immunological components. It has been proposed that Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes plays a role in the pathogenesis. In this review, we summarise reported cases of CNO or SAPHO syndrome in which C. acnes has been isolated from bones. To identify cases, a search was done in May 2018 using the MEDLINE Ovid interface (1946 to present). We found 14 publications reporting 98 patients with auto-inflammatory bone disorders, of whom 48 (49%) had positive bone biopsies for C. acnes. This bacterium was more frequently isolated from open biopsies than percutaneous ones (43/69 (62%) vs 1/7 (14%); p = 0.04) and biopsies were more frequently positive in patients who presented with simultaneous skin manifestations (19/36 (53%) vs 4/12 (33%); p = 0.03).