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Hardness of the habitual diet and its relationship with cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: Findings from the SONIC Study.
J Oral Rehabil. 2019 Feb; 46(2):151-160.JO

Abstract

BACKGROUND

There is increasing evidence of causal links between poor mastication and cognitive impairment, but possible effects of dietary hardness, which clearly affects mastication, on cognitive function are unknown.

OBJECTIVE

We investigated the hypothesis that hardness of the habitual diet would be associated with cognitive function among older Japanese adults.

METHODS

The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 635 Japanese community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years. The masticatory muscle activity required for the habitual diet was used to determine dietary hardness. Consumption of 38 foods was assessed by a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. A published database was then used to estimate the masticatory muscle activity involved in the ingestion of these foods. The Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) was used for the measurement of cognitive function.

RESULTS

The principal contributors to dietary hardness were cooked rice (28.0%), green leafy vegetables (5.1%), dried fish (4.9%), and pork and beef (4.6%). There was a positive association between dietary hardness and MoCA-J score that was robust to adjustment for potential confounders (MoCA-J score per 100-unit increase in dietary hardness: β = 0.83 [95% CI: 0.08, 1.59], P = 0.03). These results did not change materially even after exclusion of subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason (β = 0.94 [95% CI: 0.02, 1.86], P = 0.04).

CONCLUSION

This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that dietary hardness might have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further prospective studies with more accurate measurements are needed to confirm this finding.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Health Promotion, National Institute of Public Health, Saitama, Japan.Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Clinical Thanatology and Geriatric Behavioral Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Human Sciences, Osaka, Japan.Department of Prosthodontics, Gerontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka, Japan.Department of Health Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.Center for Supercentenarian Medical Research, Keio University, School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Hospital and Institute of Gerontology, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Social and Preventive Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, Aichi, Japan. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo, Japan.Department of Health Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.Department of Geriatric and General Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.Department of Geriatric and General Medicine, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.Department of Prosthodontics, Gerontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka, Japan.No affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30325532

Citation

Okubo, Hitomi, et al. "Hardness of the Habitual Diet and Its Relationship With Cognitive Function Among 70-year-old Japanese Elderly: Findings From the SONIC Study." Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, vol. 46, no. 2, 2019, pp. 151-160.
Okubo H, Murakami K, Inagaki H, et al. Hardness of the habitual diet and its relationship with cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: Findings from the SONIC Study. J Oral Rehabil. 2019;46(2):151-160.
Okubo, H., Murakami, K., Inagaki, H., Gondo, Y., Ikebe, K., Kamide, K., Masui, Y., Arai, Y., Ishizaki, T., Sasaki, S., Nakagawa, T., Kabayama, M., Sugimoto, K., Rakugi, H., & Maeda, Y. (2019). Hardness of the habitual diet and its relationship with cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: Findings from the SONIC Study. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 46(2), 151-160. https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12731
Okubo H, et al. Hardness of the Habitual Diet and Its Relationship With Cognitive Function Among 70-year-old Japanese Elderly: Findings From the SONIC Study. J Oral Rehabil. 2019;46(2):151-160. PubMed PMID: 30325532.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Hardness of the habitual diet and its relationship with cognitive function among 70-year-old Japanese elderly: Findings from the SONIC Study. AU - Okubo,Hitomi, AU - Murakami,Kentaro, AU - Inagaki,Hiroki, AU - Gondo,Yasuyuki, AU - Ikebe,Kazunori, AU - Kamide,Kei, AU - Masui,Yukie, AU - Arai,Yasumichi, AU - Ishizaki,Tatsuro, AU - Sasaki,Satoshi, AU - Nakagawa,Takeshi, AU - Kabayama,Mai, AU - Sugimoto,Ken, AU - Rakugi,Hiromi, AU - Maeda,Yoshinobu, AU - ,, Y1 - 2018/10/26/ PY - 2018/03/14/received PY - 2018/09/28/revised PY - 2018/10/08/accepted PY - 2018/10/17/pubmed PY - 2019/6/1/medline PY - 2018/10/17/entrez KW - Japanese KW - cognitive function KW - dietary hardness KW - dietary intake KW - elderly KW - masticatory muscle activity SP - 151 EP - 160 JF - Journal of oral rehabilitation JO - J Oral Rehabil VL - 46 IS - 2 N2 - BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of causal links between poor mastication and cognitive impairment, but possible effects of dietary hardness, which clearly affects mastication, on cognitive function are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hypothesis that hardness of the habitual diet would be associated with cognitive function among older Japanese adults. METHODS: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were 635 Japanese community-dwelling people aged 69-71 years. The masticatory muscle activity required for the habitual diet was used to determine dietary hardness. Consumption of 38 foods was assessed by a validated, brief-type, self-administered diet history questionnaire. A published database was then used to estimate the masticatory muscle activity involved in the ingestion of these foods. The Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) was used for the measurement of cognitive function. RESULTS: The principal contributors to dietary hardness were cooked rice (28.0%), green leafy vegetables (5.1%), dried fish (4.9%), and pork and beef (4.6%). There was a positive association between dietary hardness and MoCA-J score that was robust to adjustment for potential confounders (MoCA-J score per 100-unit increase in dietary hardness: β = 0.83 [95% CI: 0.08, 1.59], P = 0.03). These results did not change materially even after exclusion of subjects who reported substantial changes in their diet for any reason (β = 0.94 [95% CI: 0.02, 1.86], P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: This preliminary cross-sectional study suggests that dietary hardness might have a beneficial effect on cognitive function in older Japanese people. Further prospective studies with more accurate measurements are needed to confirm this finding. SN - 1365-2842 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30325532/Hardness_of_the_habitual_diet_and_its_relationship_with_cognitive_function_among_70_year_old_Japanese_elderly:_Findings_from_the_SONIC_Study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12731 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -