Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, can effectively protect against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes.
Malar J. 2018 Oct 17; 17(1):368.MJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying protect against indoor-biting and indoor-resting mosquitoes but are largely ineffective for early-biting and outdoor-biting malaria vectors. Complementary tools are, therefore, needed to accelerate control efforts. This paper describes simple hessian ribbons treated with spatial repellents and wrapped around eaves of houses to prevent outdoor-biting and indoor-biting mosquitoes over long periods of time.

METHODS

The eave ribbons are 15 cm-wide triple-layered hessian fabrics, in lengths starting 1 m. They can be fitted onto houses using nails, adhesives or Velcro, without completely closing eave-spaces. In 75 experimental nights, untreated ribbons and ribbons treated with 0.02%, 0.2%, 1.5% or 5% transfluthrin emulsion (spatial repellent) were evaluated against blank controls using two experimental huts inside a 202 m2 semi-field chamber where 500 laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Two volunteers sat outdoors (one/hut) and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors and slept under bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6.30 a.m. (indoor-biting). To assess survival, 200 caged mosquitoes were suspended near the huts nightly and monitored for 24 h thereafter. Additionally, field tests were done in experimental huts in a rural Tanzanian village to evaluate treated ribbons (1.5% transfluthrin). Here, indoor-biting was assessed using window traps and Prokopack® aspirators, and outdoor-biting assessed using volunteer-occupied double-net traps.

RESULTS

Indoor-biting and outdoor-biting decreased > 99% in huts fitted with eave ribbons having ≥ 0.2% transfluthrin. Even 0.02% transfluthrin-treated ribbons provided 79% protection indoors and 60% outdoors. Untreated ribbons however reduced indoor-biting by only 27% and increased outdoor-biting by 18%, though these were non-significant (P > 0.05). Of all caged mosquitoes exposed near treated huts, 99.5% died within 24 h. In field tests, the ribbons provided 96% protection indoors and 84% outdoors against An. arabiensis, plus 42% protection indoors and 40% outdoors against Anopheles funestus. Current prototypes cost ~ 7USD/hut, are made of widely-available hessian and require no specialized expertise.

CONCLUSION

Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons significantly prevented outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria vectors and could potentially complement current tools. The technique is simple, low-cost, highly-scalable and easy-to-use; making it suitable even for poorly-constructed houses and low-income groups.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. ammbando@ihi.or.tz.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania.Environmental Health and Ecological Sciences Department, Ifakara Health Institute, Ifakara, Tanzania. School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Parktown, Republic of South Africa. Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30333015

Citation

Mmbando, Arnold S., et al. "Eave Ribbons Treated With the Spatial Repellent, Transfluthrin, Can Effectively Protect Against Indoor-biting and Outdoor-biting Malaria Mosquitoes." Malaria Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, 2018, p. 368.
Mmbando AS, Ngowo H, Limwagu A, et al. Eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, can effectively protect against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes. Malar J. 2018;17(1):368.
Mmbando, A. S., Ngowo, H., Limwagu, A., Kilalangongono, M., Kifungo, K., & Okumu, F. O. (2018). Eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, can effectively protect against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes. Malaria Journal, 17(1), 368. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2520-1
Mmbando AS, et al. Eave Ribbons Treated With the Spatial Repellent, Transfluthrin, Can Effectively Protect Against Indoor-biting and Outdoor-biting Malaria Mosquitoes. Malar J. 2018 Oct 17;17(1):368. PubMed PMID: 30333015.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Eave ribbons treated with the spatial repellent, transfluthrin, can effectively protect against indoor-biting and outdoor-biting malaria mosquitoes. AU - Mmbando,Arnold S, AU - Ngowo,Halfan, AU - Limwagu,Alex, AU - Kilalangongono,Masoud, AU - Kifungo,Khamis, AU - Okumu,Fredros O, Y1 - 2018/10/17/ PY - 2018/07/27/received PY - 2018/10/08/accepted PY - 2018/10/19/entrez PY - 2018/10/20/pubmed PY - 2018/12/12/medline SP - 368 EP - 368 JF - Malaria journal JO - Malar J VL - 17 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Long-lasting insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying protect against indoor-biting and indoor-resting mosquitoes but are largely ineffective for early-biting and outdoor-biting malaria vectors. Complementary tools are, therefore, needed to accelerate control efforts. This paper describes simple hessian ribbons treated with spatial repellents and wrapped around eaves of houses to prevent outdoor-biting and indoor-biting mosquitoes over long periods of time. METHODS: The eave ribbons are 15 cm-wide triple-layered hessian fabrics, in lengths starting 1 m. They can be fitted onto houses using nails, adhesives or Velcro, without completely closing eave-spaces. In 75 experimental nights, untreated ribbons and ribbons treated with 0.02%, 0.2%, 1.5% or 5% transfluthrin emulsion (spatial repellent) were evaluated against blank controls using two experimental huts inside a 202 m2 semi-field chamber where 500 laboratory-reared Anopheles arabiensis were released nightly. Two volunteers sat outdoors (one/hut) and collected mosquitoes attempting to bite them from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. (outdoor-biting), then went indoors and slept under bed nets, beside which CDC-light traps collected mosquitoes from 10 p.m. to 6.30 a.m. (indoor-biting). To assess survival, 200 caged mosquitoes were suspended near the huts nightly and monitored for 24 h thereafter. Additionally, field tests were done in experimental huts in a rural Tanzanian village to evaluate treated ribbons (1.5% transfluthrin). Here, indoor-biting was assessed using window traps and Prokopack® aspirators, and outdoor-biting assessed using volunteer-occupied double-net traps. RESULTS: Indoor-biting and outdoor-biting decreased > 99% in huts fitted with eave ribbons having ≥ 0.2% transfluthrin. Even 0.02% transfluthrin-treated ribbons provided 79% protection indoors and 60% outdoors. Untreated ribbons however reduced indoor-biting by only 27% and increased outdoor-biting by 18%, though these were non-significant (P > 0.05). Of all caged mosquitoes exposed near treated huts, 99.5% died within 24 h. In field tests, the ribbons provided 96% protection indoors and 84% outdoors against An. arabiensis, plus 42% protection indoors and 40% outdoors against Anopheles funestus. Current prototypes cost ~ 7USD/hut, are made of widely-available hessian and require no specialized expertise. CONCLUSION: Transfluthrin-treated eave ribbons significantly prevented outdoor-biting and indoor-biting malaria vectors and could potentially complement current tools. The technique is simple, low-cost, highly-scalable and easy-to-use; making it suitable even for poorly-constructed houses and low-income groups. SN - 1475-2875 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30333015/Eave_ribbons_treated_with_the_spatial_repellent_transfluthrin_can_effectively_protect_against_indoor_biting_and_outdoor_biting_malaria_mosquitoes_ L2 - https://malariajournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12936-018-2520-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -