Fish Skin Gelatin Hydrolysate Production by Ginger Powder Induces Glutathione Synthesis To Prevent Hydrogen Peroxide Induced Intestinal Oxidative Stress via the Pept1-p62-Nrf2 Cascade.J Agric Food Chem. 2018 Nov 07; 66(44):11601-11611.JA
Gelatin hydrolysate was reported to contain large amounts of biologically active peptides with excellent antioxidant properties. However, its inducement of antioxidant response within cells and the underlying molecular mechanism are far from clear. Here, gelatin from Nile tilapia skin was hydrolyzed by ginger protease to produce antioxidant hydrolysate, and three fish skin gelatin hydrolysate fractions (FSGHFs) were obtained by ultrafiltration. Fractionation of the hydrolysate increased the free radical scavenging capacity of the FSGHFs, particularly FSGHF3, which showed the lowest molecular weight (below 1000 Da). Furthermore, FSGHF3 treatment prior to H2O2 exposure increased cell viability and membrane integrity in IPEC-J2 cells. H2O2-induced ROS production and epithelial barrier damage were suppressed by FSGHF3 pretreatment. FSGHF3 stimulated the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), along with increases in the mRNA and protein expression of catalytic and modulatory subunits of γ-glutamylcysteine ligase as well as in the level of glutathione. Silencing of Nrf2 or p62 (an upstream regulator of Nrf2) suppressed FSGHF3-induced Nrf2 activation and its protection against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, oligopeptides in FSGHF3 may mediate the cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which was confirmed by the result that FSGHF3 failed to inhibit the ROS production in H2O2-exposed cells with the knockdown of Pept1 (an oligopeptide transporter). Therefore, FSGHF3 can induce glutathione synthesis and prevent oxidative stress through the Pept1-p62-Nrf2 cascade and thus may be a functional food for gastrointestinal dysfunction.