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Evaluating Virulence-Associated Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler and Broiler Breeder Chickens in Ontario, Canada.
Avian Dis. 2018 09; 62(3):291-299.AD

Abstract

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis in poultry, an economically important disease worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, early and late systemic bacterial infections due to APEC were the most commonly reported diseases in broiler chickens. In 2016, Ontario poultry veterinarians submitted samples from 331 cases of broiler and broiler breeder chickens with a high suspicion of colibacillosis to the Animal Health Laboratory (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) for bacterial culture. Escherichia coli isolates from those samples were tested with multiplex PCR to detect the presence of 13 virulence-associated genes. The most common genes identified were sitA (detected in 93% of isolates), iss (88%), iroN (85%), iutA (79%), ompT (77%), and etsB (67%). In 94% of isolates, at least three virulence-associated genes were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates by using the disk diffusion method revealed high frequencies of resistance to tetracycline (57% of isolates), gentamicin (50%), spectinomycin (46%), and ampicillin (44%). Relatively fewer isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (18%), ceftiofur (15%), kanamycin (11%), and apramycin (3%). A high proportion (46%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes). On the basis of multivariable, mixed effects logistic regression models, statistically significant associations (P ≤ 0.05) were identified between the following: ampicillin resistance and the presence of kpsII (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88), tsh (OR = 0.46), and ireA (OR = 0.32); ceftiofur resistance and etsB (OR = 2.98) and kpsII (OR = 2.61); gentamicin resistance and ompT (OR = 3.89) and sitA (OR = 3.54); kanamycin resistance and papC (OR = 50.10); spectinomycin resistance and ireA (OR = 2.50) and iutA (OR = 3.15); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance and ompT (OR = 0.14) and tsh (OR = 0.31); and tetracycline resistance and cvaC (OR = 2.12), eitA (OR = 2.15), and papC (OR = 8.27). On the basis of a multivariable, mixed effects Poisson regression model, the number of antimicrobials to which an isolate was resistant increased with the presence of eitA (risk ratio [RR] = 1.37), iroN (RR = 1.24), papC (RR = 1.34), and sitA (RR = 1.77) and decreased with the presence of tsh (RR = 0.79). On the basis of bivariable logistic regression models, age group and time of sample collection were not significantly associated with resistance to individual antimicrobials, the presence of multidrug resistance, or the presence of virulence-associated genes. Our results provide information on antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene patterns currently present on Ontario broiler chicken and broiler breeder farms that can be used as a benchmark from which to measure changes.

Authors+Show Affiliations

A Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1. B Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.C Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.C Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.B Department of Pathobiology, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.D Maple Lodge Hatcheries Ltd., Port Hope, Ontario, Canada, L1A 3V5.E Smith & Weisz Poultry Veterinary Services, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1L 1G3.F McKinley Hatchery, St. Mary's, Ontario, Canada, N4X 1G2.G Hendrix Genetics, Kitchener, Ontario, Canada, N2K 3S2.C Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.H Department of Population Medicine, Ontario Veterinary College, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, N1G 2W1.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30339507

Citation

Varga, Csaba, et al. "Evaluating Virulence-Associated Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates From Broiler and Broiler Breeder Chickens in Ontario, Canada." Avian Diseases, vol. 62, no. 3, 2018, pp. 291-299.
Varga C, Brash ML, Slavic D, et al. Evaluating Virulence-Associated Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler and Broiler Breeder Chickens in Ontario, Canada. Avian Dis. 2018;62(3):291-299.
Varga, C., Brash, M. L., Slavic, D., Boerlin, P., Ouckama, R., Weis, A., Petrik, M., Philippe, C., Barham, M., & Guerin, M. T. (2018). Evaluating Virulence-Associated Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler and Broiler Breeder Chickens in Ontario, Canada. Avian Diseases, 62(3), 291-299. https://doi.org/10.1637/11834-032818-Reg.1
Varga C, et al. Evaluating Virulence-Associated Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia Coli Isolates From Broiler and Broiler Breeder Chickens in Ontario, Canada. Avian Dis. 2018;62(3):291-299. PubMed PMID: 30339507.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluating Virulence-Associated Genes and Antimicrobial Resistance of Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Broiler and Broiler Breeder Chickens in Ontario, Canada. AU - Varga,Csaba, AU - Brash,Marina L, AU - Slavic,Durda, AU - Boerlin,Patrick, AU - Ouckama,Rachel, AU - Weis,Alexandru, AU - Petrik,Mike, AU - Philippe,Cynthia, AU - Barham,Melanie, AU - Guerin,Michele T, PY - 2018/10/20/entrez PY - 2018/10/20/pubmed PY - 2019/7/13/medline KW - Canada KW - Ontario KW - antimicrobial resistance KW - avian pathogenic Escherichia coli KW - broilers KW - multidrug resistance KW - virulence genes SP - 291 EP - 299 JF - Avian diseases JO - Avian Dis. VL - 62 IS - 3 N2 - Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is the causative agent of colibacillosis in poultry, an economically important disease worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, early and late systemic bacterial infections due to APEC were the most commonly reported diseases in broiler chickens. In 2016, Ontario poultry veterinarians submitted samples from 331 cases of broiler and broiler breeder chickens with a high suspicion of colibacillosis to the Animal Health Laboratory (Guelph, Ontario, Canada) for bacterial culture. Escherichia coli isolates from those samples were tested with multiplex PCR to detect the presence of 13 virulence-associated genes. The most common genes identified were sitA (detected in 93% of isolates), iss (88%), iroN (85%), iutA (79%), ompT (77%), and etsB (67%). In 94% of isolates, at least three virulence-associated genes were detected. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates by using the disk diffusion method revealed high frequencies of resistance to tetracycline (57% of isolates), gentamicin (50%), spectinomycin (46%), and ampicillin (44%). Relatively fewer isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (18%), ceftiofur (15%), kanamycin (11%), and apramycin (3%). A high proportion (46%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant (≥3 antimicrobial classes). On the basis of multivariable, mixed effects logistic regression models, statistically significant associations (P ≤ 0.05) were identified between the following: ampicillin resistance and the presence of kpsII (odds ratio [OR] = 1.88), tsh (OR = 0.46), and ireA (OR = 0.32); ceftiofur resistance and etsB (OR = 2.98) and kpsII (OR = 2.61); gentamicin resistance and ompT (OR = 3.89) and sitA (OR = 3.54); kanamycin resistance and papC (OR = 50.10); spectinomycin resistance and ireA (OR = 2.50) and iutA (OR = 3.15); trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance and ompT (OR = 0.14) and tsh (OR = 0.31); and tetracycline resistance and cvaC (OR = 2.12), eitA (OR = 2.15), and papC (OR = 8.27). On the basis of a multivariable, mixed effects Poisson regression model, the number of antimicrobials to which an isolate was resistant increased with the presence of eitA (risk ratio [RR] = 1.37), iroN (RR = 1.24), papC (RR = 1.34), and sitA (RR = 1.77) and decreased with the presence of tsh (RR = 0.79). On the basis of bivariable logistic regression models, age group and time of sample collection were not significantly associated with resistance to individual antimicrobials, the presence of multidrug resistance, or the presence of virulence-associated genes. Our results provide information on antimicrobial resistance and virulence gene patterns currently present on Ontario broiler chicken and broiler breeder farms that can be used as a benchmark from which to measure changes. SN - 1938-4351 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30339507/Evaluating_Virulence_Associated_Genes_and_Antimicrobial_Resistance_of_Avian_Pathogenic_Escherichia_coli_Isolates_from_Broiler_and_Broiler_Breeder_Chickens_in_Ontario_Canada_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1637/11834-032818-Reg.1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -