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Use of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs.
Int J Drug Policy. 2018 11; 61:52-58.IJ

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The overdose epidemic has been exacerbated by a dramatic increase in deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF). Drug checking is a novel strategy to identify IMF in illicit drugs. We examined the uptake and acceptability of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults.

METHODS

From May to September 2017, we recruited 93 young adults in Rhode Island who reported injecting drugs or using heroin, cocaine, or illicitly obtained prescription pills in the past 30 days. Participants were asked to test either their urine after drug use (post-consumption) or a drug sample prior to use (pre-consumption) using rapid fentanyl test strips. After a questionnaire and a brief training, participants received ten strips for their personal use and were asked to return for a one-month follow-up visit, which assessed the uptake and acceptability of the rapid strips tests and the behavioral outcomes associated with receipt of a positive test.

RESULTS

Of the 81 (87%) participants who returned for follow-up and who had complete data, the mean age was 27, 45 (56%) were male, and 37 (46%) were non-white. A total of 62 participants (77%) reported using at least one test strip. Of these, 31 (50%) received at least one positive result. A positive result was associated with older age, homelessness, heroin use, injection drug use, ever witnessing an overdose, and concern about overdose or drugs being laced with fentanyl (all p < 0.05). Receiving a positive result was significantly associated with reporting a positive change in overdose risk behavior between baseline and follow-up (p ≤ 0.01). Among all participants, 79 (98%) reported confidence in their ability to use the test strips and 77 (95%) wanted to use them in the future.

CONCLUSIONS

Young adults reported high uptake and acceptability of fentanyl test strips to detect IMF in illicit drugs.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA.School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; British Columbia Centre for Disease Control, Vancouver, Canada.School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada; Vancouver Coastal Health, Vancouver, Canada.Department of Emergency Medicine, Grayken Center for Addiction, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Grayken Center for Addiction, Boston Medical Center, Boston, USA.Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, USA.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, USA.Department of Emergency Medicine, Grayken Center for Addiction, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Grayken Center for Addiction, Boston Medical Center, Boston, USA.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, Grayken Center for Addiction, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, USA; Department of Pediatrics, Grayken Center for Addiction, Boston Medical Center, Boston, USA; Department of Emergency Medicine, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, USA.Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA. Electronic address: brandon_marshall@brown.edu.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30344005

Citation

Krieger, Maxwell S., et al. "Use of Rapid Fentanyl Test Strips Among Young Adults Who Use Drugs." The International Journal On Drug Policy, vol. 61, 2018, pp. 52-58.
Krieger MS, Goedel WC, Buxton JA, et al. Use of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs. Int J Drug Policy. 2018;61:52-58.
Krieger, M. S., Goedel, W. C., Buxton, J. A., Lysyshyn, M., Bernstein, E., Sherman, S. G., Rich, J. D., Hadland, S. E., Green, T. C., & Marshall, B. D. L. (2018). Use of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs. The International Journal On Drug Policy, 61, 52-58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2018.09.009
Krieger MS, et al. Use of Rapid Fentanyl Test Strips Among Young Adults Who Use Drugs. Int J Drug Policy. 2018;61:52-58. PubMed PMID: 30344005.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Use of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults who use drugs. AU - Krieger,Maxwell S, AU - Goedel,William C, AU - Buxton,Jane A, AU - Lysyshyn,Mark, AU - Bernstein,Edward, AU - Sherman,Susan G, AU - Rich,Josiah D, AU - Hadland,Scott E, AU - Green,Traci C, AU - Marshall,Brandon D L, Y1 - 2018/10/18/ PY - 2018/05/11/received PY - 2018/08/31/revised PY - 2018/09/04/accepted PY - 2018/10/23/pubmed PY - 2019/9/20/medline PY - 2018/10/23/entrez KW - Acceptability KW - Fentanyl KW - Harm reduction KW - Opioids KW - Overdose KW - Uptake SP - 52 EP - 58 JF - The International journal on drug policy JO - Int J Drug Policy VL - 61 N2 - BACKGROUND: The overdose epidemic has been exacerbated by a dramatic increase in deaths involving illicitly manufactured fentanyl (IMF). Drug checking is a novel strategy to identify IMF in illicit drugs. We examined the uptake and acceptability of rapid fentanyl test strips among young adults. METHODS: From May to September 2017, we recruited 93 young adults in Rhode Island who reported injecting drugs or using heroin, cocaine, or illicitly obtained prescription pills in the past 30 days. Participants were asked to test either their urine after drug use (post-consumption) or a drug sample prior to use (pre-consumption) using rapid fentanyl test strips. After a questionnaire and a brief training, participants received ten strips for their personal use and were asked to return for a one-month follow-up visit, which assessed the uptake and acceptability of the rapid strips tests and the behavioral outcomes associated with receipt of a positive test. RESULTS: Of the 81 (87%) participants who returned for follow-up and who had complete data, the mean age was 27, 45 (56%) were male, and 37 (46%) were non-white. A total of 62 participants (77%) reported using at least one test strip. Of these, 31 (50%) received at least one positive result. A positive result was associated with older age, homelessness, heroin use, injection drug use, ever witnessing an overdose, and concern about overdose or drugs being laced with fentanyl (all p < 0.05). Receiving a positive result was significantly associated with reporting a positive change in overdose risk behavior between baseline and follow-up (p ≤ 0.01). Among all participants, 79 (98%) reported confidence in their ability to use the test strips and 77 (95%) wanted to use them in the future. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults reported high uptake and acceptability of fentanyl test strips to detect IMF in illicit drugs. SN - 1873-4758 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30344005/Use_of_rapid_fentanyl_test_strips_among_young_adults_who_use_drugs_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0955-3959(18)30246-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -