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Conserved and Unique Putative Effectors Expressed in the Salivary Glands of Three Related Gall Midge Species.
J Insect Sci. 2018 Sep 01; 18(5)JI

Abstract

Species in the stem gall midge genus Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) cause serious damage to small grain crops. Among Mayetiola species are Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say), barley midge (Mayetiola hordei Keiffer), and oat midge (Mayetiola avenae Marchal). Larvae of these species inject saliva into host tissues to manipulate plants. To identify putative effectors, transcriptomic analyses were conducted on transcripts encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) from first instar larvae of the barley and oat midges, since SSGPs are the most likely source for effector proteins delivered into host tissues. From barley midge, 178 SSGP-encoding unigenes were identified, which were sorted into 51 groups. From oat midge, 194 were obtained and sorted into 50 groups. Predicted proteins within a group had a highly conserved secretion signal peptide and shared at least 30% amino acid identity. Among the identified unigenes from both barley and oat midges, ~68% are conserved either among the three species or between two of them. Conserved SSGPs included members belonging to SSGP-1, SSGP-4, SSGP-11, and SSGP-71 families. Unconventional conservation patterns exist among family members within a species and among different gall midges, indicating that these genes are under high selection pressure, a characteristic of effector genes. SSGPs that are unique to each species were also identified. Those conserved SSGPs may be responsible for host manipulation since the three gall midges produce identical phenotypic symptoms to host plants, whereas the SSGPs unique to each species may be responsible for different host specificity.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS. College of Agriculture, Green University of Al Qasim, Iraq.INRA-Quich Rue Hafiane Cherkaoui, Agdal Rabat-Institutes, B.P., Rabat, Morocco.Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Waters Hall, Manhattan, KS. Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research Unit, USDA-ARS and Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

30346621

Citation

Al-Jbory, Zainab, et al. "Conserved and Unique Putative Effectors Expressed in the Salivary Glands of Three Related Gall Midge Species." Journal of Insect Science (Online), vol. 18, no. 5, 2018.
Al-Jbory Z, El-Bouhssini M, Chen MS. Conserved and Unique Putative Effectors Expressed in the Salivary Glands of Three Related Gall Midge Species. J Insect Sci. 2018;18(5).
Al-Jbory, Z., El-Bouhssini, M., & Chen, M. S. (2018). Conserved and Unique Putative Effectors Expressed in the Salivary Glands of Three Related Gall Midge Species. Journal of Insect Science (Online), 18(5). https://doi.org/10.1093/jisesa/iey094
Al-Jbory Z, El-Bouhssini M, Chen MS. Conserved and Unique Putative Effectors Expressed in the Salivary Glands of Three Related Gall Midge Species. J Insect Sci. 2018 Sep 1;18(5) PubMed PMID: 30346621.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Conserved and Unique Putative Effectors Expressed in the Salivary Glands of Three Related Gall Midge Species. AU - Al-Jbory,Zainab, AU - El-Bouhssini,Mustapha, AU - Chen,Ming-Shun, Y1 - 2018/09/01/ PY - 2018/05/10/received PY - 2018/10/23/entrez PY - 2018/10/23/pubmed PY - 2018/10/30/medline JF - Journal of insect science (Online) JO - J Insect Sci VL - 18 IS - 5 N2 - Species in the stem gall midge genus Mayetiola (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) cause serious damage to small grain crops. Among Mayetiola species are Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor Say), barley midge (Mayetiola hordei Keiffer), and oat midge (Mayetiola avenae Marchal). Larvae of these species inject saliva into host tissues to manipulate plants. To identify putative effectors, transcriptomic analyses were conducted on transcripts encoding secreted salivary gland proteins (SSGPs) from first instar larvae of the barley and oat midges, since SSGPs are the most likely source for effector proteins delivered into host tissues. From barley midge, 178 SSGP-encoding unigenes were identified, which were sorted into 51 groups. From oat midge, 194 were obtained and sorted into 50 groups. Predicted proteins within a group had a highly conserved secretion signal peptide and shared at least 30% amino acid identity. Among the identified unigenes from both barley and oat midges, ~68% are conserved either among the three species or between two of them. Conserved SSGPs included members belonging to SSGP-1, SSGP-4, SSGP-11, and SSGP-71 families. Unconventional conservation patterns exist among family members within a species and among different gall midges, indicating that these genes are under high selection pressure, a characteristic of effector genes. SSGPs that are unique to each species were also identified. Those conserved SSGPs may be responsible for host manipulation since the three gall midges produce identical phenotypic symptoms to host plants, whereas the SSGPs unique to each species may be responsible for different host specificity. SN - 1536-2442 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/30346621/Conserved_and_Unique_Putative_Effectors_Expressed_in_the_Salivary_Glands_of_Three_Related_Gall_Midge_Species_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/jinsectscience/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/jisesa/iey094 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -